Metabolic syndrome (MS) and atrial fibrillation (AF) are associated with increased cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. This analysis evaluated the association between MS and AF in the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. MS was defined using criteria recommended in the joint interim statement from several international societies. AF was defined by electrocardiogram (ECG) and/or self-report and by ECG alone. In patients with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 MS components, prevalences of AF by ECG and/or self-report were 5.5%, 7.7%, 8.2%, 9.2%, 9.6%, and 11.5%, respectively (p for trend <0.001).