Atrial fibrillation (AF) is 1 of the most clinically diagnosed cardiac disturbances but little is known about its risk factors. Previous epidemiologic studies have reported on the association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and subsequent risk of AF, with inconsistent results. The aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis of published studies to reliably determine the direction and magnitude of any association between DM and AF. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted. PubMed and EMBASE were searched to identify prospective cohort and case–control studies that had reported on the association between DM and other measurements of glucose homeostasis with incident AF by April 2010.