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Paradoxical pulse: 100 years later

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      The term paradoxical pulse was coined 100 years ago by Adolf Kussmaul. The reasons Kussmaul called this arterial pulse phenomenon paradoxical have frequently been forgotton or misinterpreted and are restated on the basis of Kussmaul's original text of 1873.
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      References

        • Kussmaul A
        Ueber schwielige Mediastino-Pericarditis und den paradoxen Puls.
        Berlin Klin Wschr. 1873; 10: 433-435
      1. (and figure 2)
        • Vierordt K
        Die Lehre vom Arterienpuls in gesunden und kranken Zuständen.
        in: F Vieweg, Braunschweig1855: 226
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        An Introduction to the History of Medicine.
        in: WB Saunders, Philadelphia and London1917: 657
        • Kussmaul Adolf
        Festschrift zur Vollendung seines 80.
        Lebensjahr. Deutsches Arch für Klin Med. 1902; 73 (1822–1902): 1-686
        • Kussmaul A
        Ueber angeborene Enge und Verschluss der Lungen-Arterien-Bahn.
        Z für Rationelle Med. 1866; 26: 99-179