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New Criteria to Identify Patients at Higher Risk for Cardiovascular Complications After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

Published:December 06, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2022.11.029
      A universal definition to identify patients at higher risk of complications after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is lacking. We aimed to validate a recently developed score to identify patients at increased risk of all-cause death after PCI. All consecutive patients from a large PCI registry not presenting with ST-elevation myocardial infarction or cardiogenic shock were included. Each patient was assigned a score obtained by summing the points associated with the following variables: age >80 years (3 points), dialysis (6 points), left ventricular ejection fraction <30% (2 points), and multivessel PCI (2 points). Patients were stratified in 3 groups: low risk (score 0), intermediate risk (score 2 to 3), or high risk (score ≥4). The primary outcome was all-cause death, and the secondary outcomes were major adverse cardiovascular events and major bleeding. Events were assessed at 1 year after PCI. Between January 2014 and December 2019, 12,689 patients underwent PCI. Compared with the 9,884 patients at low risk, those at intermediate and high risk had a fourfold (hazard ratio 3.99, 95% confidence interval 2.95 to 5.38) and ninefold (hazard ratio 9.55, 95% confidence interval 6.89 to 13.2) higher hazard for all-cause death at 1 year, respectively. The score had a good predictive value for all-cause death at 1 year (area under the curve 0.70). The risk of major adverse cardiovascular events and major bleeding increased consistently from the low- to the high-risk group. In conclusion, in patients who underwent PCI for stable ischemic heart disease or non–ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome, a score based on 4 variables well predicted the risk of all-cause death at 1 year.
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