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Frequency and Predictors of Preoperative Cardiac Testing Overuse in Low-Risk Patients Before Laparoscopic Bariatric Surgery

Published:October 19, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2022.09.024
      Adverse cardiac events after laparoscopic bariatric surgery are rare, yet preoperative cardiology evaluation and testing remain common, resulting in the overuse of cardiac testing in low-risk patients. Our objective was to assess the frequency of, and factors associated with, overuse of preoperative cardiac testing in patients at low cardiac risk before laparoscopic bariatric surgery. We retrospectively reviewed data from 1,094 adult patients who underwent laparoscopic bariatric surgery at our institution from January 1, 2015, through December 31, 2019. The cardiac risk was determined using the Revised Cardiac Risk Index (RCRI) and the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Myocardial Infarction and Cardiac Arrest (NSQIP MICA) risk model. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate risk factors associated with the overuse of cardiac testing in low-risk patients. Overall, 1,059 patients (96.8%) were estimated to be at low cardiac risk by the RCRI, and 1,094 (100%) were at low cardiac risk by NSQIP MICA. A total of 587 patients (51.8%) were referred to cardiology for preoperative evaluation, and 643 patients (56.7%) underwent one or more preoperative cardiac tests. Factors associated with overuse of preoperative cardiac testing in low-risk patients included preoperative cardiology referral (adjusted odds ratio 37.2, 95% confidence interval 25.3 to 54.7) and patient age (adjusted odds ratio 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.07). Overuse of preoperative cardiac testing was common in patients at low cardiac risk before laparoscopic bariatric surgery. Preoperative referral to cardiology was the most significant risk factor associated with the overuse of preoperative cardiac testing. Application of risk models such as the RCRI or NSQIP MICA at the time of bariatric program enrollment may reduce unnecessary preoperative cardiac testing in low-risk patients.
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