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The Usefulness of the Modified Essential Frailty Toolset to Predict Late Bleeding Events after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation

Published:September 21, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2022.08.024
      Frailty is strongly associated with poor short- and long-term prognoses in patients who undergo transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). However, limited data are available regarding the association between frailty and late bleeding events after TAVI. Of the 2,518 patients in the Japanese multicenter TAVI registry, 1371 patients with complete data on frailty parameters were analyzed. We developed a modified Essential Frailty Toolset (EFT) using 4 frailty parameters—gait speed, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), anemia, and hypoalbuminemia—that are significant predictors of late bleeding events in this cohort. The predictive value of the modified EFT for late bleeding after TAVI was assessed in comparison with other clinical variables. Late bleeding events after TAVI occurred in 80 patients (5.8%). Gait speed, MMSE, anemia, and hypoalbuminemia were significantly associated with late bleeding. A modified EFT was developed to include these parameters, which were scored from 0 to 5 points comprising the following 4 items: gait speed (0: >1.5 m/s, 1: 1.5 to 0.75 m/s, 2: <0.75 m/s), cognition (1: MMSE <18), anemia (1: hemoglobin <13 g/100 ml in men or <12 g/100 ml in women), and malnutrition (1: albumin <3.5 g/100 ml). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that the modified EFT was an independent predictor of late bleeding (adjusted hazard ratio 1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19 to 1.92, p <0.001) In conclusion, the modified EFT was found to be a significant predictive factor for late bleeding events after TAVI. Assessment of frailty is important to predict patients with high bleeding risk after TAVI.
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