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Mitral Regurgitation and Mortality Risk in Medicare Beneficiaries With Heart Failure and Preserved Ejection Fraction

  • Ginger Y. Jiang
    Affiliations
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts

    Richard A. and Susan F. Smith Center for Outcomes Research in Cardiology, Boston, Massachusetts
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  • Jiaman Xu
    Affiliations
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts

    Richard A. and Susan F. Smith Center for Outcomes Research in Cardiology, Boston, Massachusetts

    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts
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  • Warren J. Manning
    Affiliations
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts

    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts

    Department of Radiology, Boston, Massachusetts
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  • Lawrence J. Markson
    Affiliations
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts

    Information Systems, Boston, Massachusetts
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  • Kamal R. Khabbaz
    Affiliations
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts

    Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts
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  • A. Reshad Garan
    Affiliations
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts

    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts
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  • Marwa A. Sabe
    Affiliations
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts

    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts
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  • Jordan B. Strom
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author: Tel: 617-632-7653; fax: 617-632-7698.
    Affiliations
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts

    Richard A. and Susan F. Smith Center for Outcomes Research in Cardiology, Boston, Massachusetts

    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts
    Search for articles by this author
Published:September 11, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2022.07.025
      The association of mitral regurgitation (MR) severity and mortality in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is uncertain. We sought to evaluate the relation between MR severity on transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and subsequent all-cause mortality in Medicare beneficiaries with HFpEF. We linked 57,608 patients referred for TTE at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center to Medicare inpatient claims from 2003 to 2017. In those with a history of HF and a physician-reported left ventricular ejection fraction ≥50%, we evaluated the relation of MR severity and time to the primary end point of all-cause mortality using Kaplan-Meier methods. A total of 7,778 individuals (14.5%) met inclusion criteria (mean age 75.5 years ± 11.9, 55.9% female). Over a median follow-up of 8.1 years, 2,016 (25.9%) died at a median (interquartile range) of 1.7 (0.3 to 4.1) years. At 1 year, 15.8% with 3 to 4+ MR had died versus 10.5% with 0 to 2+ MR (hazard ratio 1.54, 95% confidence interval 1.22 to 1.95, p <0.001). After multivariable adjustment, 3 to 4+ MR continued to be associated with increased all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 1.48, 95% confidence interval 1.14 to 1.94, p = 0.004) except in the subset with atrial fibrillation (interaction p = 0.03) or recent (<3 months) HF hospitalization (p = 0.54). In conclusion, in this large, single-institution retrospective study of Medicare beneficiaries with HFpEF who underwent TTE, moderate-to-severe and severe MR were significantly associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality after multivariable adjustment, except in those with atrial fibrillation or recent HF. Prospective studies are needed to assess the role of MR reduction in mitigating this risk.
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