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Comparison of Longitudinal Skeletal Thigh Muscle Findings With Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients With Peripheral Artery Disease With–Versus–Without Diabetes Mellitus

      The aim of this secondary analysis of ELIMIT (The Effect of Lipid Modification on Peripheral Artery Disease after Endovascular Intervention Trial) was to determine longitudinal changes over 24 months in skeletal thigh muscle volumes and individual muscle compartments in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) with and without diabetes. A total of 48 patients with available magnetic resonance imaging of the distal superficial femoral artery at baseline and 2 years were included in this analysis. Muscle volumes and superficial femoral artery wall, lumen, and total vessel volumes were quantified. Intrareader reproducibility of muscle tracings was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient using a 2-way model. Baseline characteristics were similar between patients with PAD with and without diabetes, except for smoking history (p = 0.049), cholesterol levels (p <0.050), and calf walking pain (p = 0.049). Interobserver reproducibility of the muscle volume tracings was excellent for all muscle groups (all intraclass correlation coefficients >0.86, confidence interval 0.69 to 0.94). Total muscle and total leg volumes increased significantly between baseline and 24 months among patients with PAD without diabetes (31 ± 6.4 cm
      • Atkins JL
      • Whincup PH
      • Morris RW
      • Lennon LT
      • Papacosta O
      • Wannamethee SG.
      Sarcopenic obesity and risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality: a population-based cohort study of older men.
      vs 32 ± 7.0 cm
      • Atkins JL
      • Whincup PH
      • Morris RW
      • Lennon LT
      • Papacosta O
      • Wannamethee SG.
      Sarcopenic obesity and risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality: a population-based cohort study of older men.
      , p <0.001; 18 ± 4.4 cm
      • Atkins JL
      • Whincup PH
      • Morris RW
      • Lennon LT
      • Papacosta O
      • Wannamethee SG.
      Sarcopenic obesity and risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality: a population-based cohort study of older men.
      vs 19 ± 4.8 cm
      • Atkins JL
      • Whincup PH
      • Morris RW
      • Lennon LT
      • Papacosta O
      • Wannamethee SG.
      Sarcopenic obesity and risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality: a population-based cohort study of older men.
      , p = 0.045), whereas there was no change in patients with PAD and diabetes. Total muscle volume was inversely associated with age and body mass index in patients with PAD both with and without diabetes (p <0.05). In conclusion, magnetic resonance imaging–quantified thigh muscle volumes are highly reproducible and may be of interest in assessing PAD patients with and without diabetes.
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