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Comparison of the Quantity of Calcium in the Aortic Valve and the Coronary Arteries in Men Versus Women Who Underwent Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation

      Several studies have shown an association between aortic stenosis (AS) and coronary atherosclerosis. This study aimed to evaluate the gender differences in aortic valve calcium (AVC) and coronary artery calcium (CAC) and the association between CAC and all-cause mortality in patients with severe AS. A total of 260 patients (80 ± 7 years, 39% men) with severe AS who were scheduled for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) were included. AVC and CAC before TAVI were assessed by noncontrast cardiac computed tomography. Patients with coronary intervention or aortic valve replacement before cardiac computed tomography were excluded. Standard reference values of CAC score were used to classify the percentile groups and the distribution of AVC was assessed. The primary end point was all-cause mortality. In men, the AVC score was 3,911 Hounsfield units (HUs) (interquartile range [IQR] 2,525 to 5,259) and in women, 2,409 HU (IQR 1,588 to 3,359) (p <0.001). CAC score in men was 824 HU (IQR 328 to 1,855) and in women, 478 HU (IQR 136 to 962) (p <0.001). In men, the AVC score increased along with the CAC score, whereas in women, the AVC score was similar across the CAC percentile groups. During a median follow-up of 1,095 days, 59 patients (23%) died. No significant gender-difference was seen in all-cause mortality for CAC score (p = 0.187). Men with severe AS show higher AVC and CAC scores than women. Although the pattern of CAC distribution was similar between men and women, the AVC score increased along with the CAC score in men; whereas, in women, the AVC score remained similar across the various percentiles. CAC score was not associated with cumulative mortality in patients with severe AS who underwent TAVI.
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