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Transvenous Phrenic Nerve Stimulation for Central Sleep Apnea

      RespiCardia remedē System (Minnetonka, MN 2017), a transvenous phrenic nerve stimulator, is indicated to treat central sleep apnea (CSA) by stimulating the phrenic nerve to cause diaphragmatic contraction to restore normal breathing during sleep. CSA is associated with decreased patient quality of life and worsens cardiovascular outcomes. Systematic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines. PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane, EBSCO CINAHL, and Ovid databases were queried by 2 independent reviewers for English-language studies published between 2000 and 2021. The initial search screened for all occurrences of “remedē” then was further refined to include studies evaluating use of the RespiCardia remedē System as a treatment for CSA in multiple patients. A total of 124 articles were identified from the initial search results. A total of 37 articles were identified through screening of title and abstracts from initial results. Full-text review of all the articles was then completed. Of the 13 articles included, a total of 232 patients underwent device implantation. We sought to summarize the available evidence regarding patient selection for implantation, immediate and delayed complications, adherence to therapy, and polysomnographic evidence of efficacy. All 13 articles detailed significant decreases in central apnea index and many patients reported significant mild to marked improvement in quality of life. In conclusion, the remedē System has been demonstrated to improve sleep and respiratory parameters, with few complications. This device demonstrates safe and effective treatment of moderate to severe CSA in adult patients, including those with heart failure.
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