Advertisement

At the Crossroads! Time to Start Taking Smartwatches Seriously

      Patients have demonstrated a growing interest in using wearable devices, particularly smartwatches, to monitor and improve their cardiovascular wellness. Wearable devices are now one of the fastest growing sectors of the technology industry, and big technology companies, such as Apple (Apple Watch), Google (Fitbit), and Samsung (Galaxy), have engineered smartwatch features that are capable of monitoring biometrics, such as heart rhythm, heart rate, blood pressure, and sleep. These devices hold significant potential to impact the relation between cardiologists and their patients, but concerns exist about device trustworthiness to detect pertinent data points and deliver alerts with accuracy. How these devices’ features will interplay with cardiologists’ workflow has also yet to be defined and requires thoughtful implementation. Furthermore, the success of smartwatches as medical devices is dependent on patients’ continuous use. Keeping patients engaged with their devices through leveraging behavioral factors may lead to achieving and optimizing healthcare goals. Socioeconomic disparities and privacy concerns are other barriers in the path forward. Cardiovascular professional societies are uniquely poised to help impact how these devices are eventually accepted and used in everyday practice. In conclusion, engagement and collaboration with big tech companies will help guide how this market grows.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to American Journal of Cardiology
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Patel MS
        • Asch DA
        • Volpp KG.
        Wearable devices as facilitators, not drivers, of health behavior change.
        JAMA. 2015; 313: 459-460
      1. Phaneuf A. Latest trends in medical monitoring devices and wearable health technology. Business Insider. Available at: https://www.businessinsider.com/wearable-technology-healthcare-medical-devices. Accessed on January 10, 2022.

      2. Valen Cell. National wearables survey reveals accelerating convergence of consumer wearables and personal health & medical devices. Available at: https://valencell.com/press/2018/11/national-wearables-survey-reveals-accelerating-convergence-of-consumer-wearables-and-personal-health-medical-devices/. Accessed on January 31, 2022.

      3. Ledger DM. Inside wearables part 1: how behavior change unlocks long-term engagement. Endeavour Partners. Available at: https://medium.com/@endeavourprtnrs/inside-wearable-how-the-science-of-human-behavior-change-offers-the-secret-to-long-term-engagement-a15b3c7d4cf3. Accessed on January 31, 2022.

        • Jo A
        • Coronel BD
        • Coakes CE
        • Mainous 3rd, AG
        Is there a benefit to patients using wearable devices such as Fitbit or health apps on mobiles? A systematic review.
        Am J Med. 2019; 132 (e1): 1394-1400
        • Xie Z
        • Jo A
        • Hong YR
        Electronic wearable device and physical activity among US adults: an analysis of 2019 HINTS data.
        Int J Med Inform. 2020; 144104297
        • Lee SM
        • Lee D.
        Healthcare wearable devices: an analysis of key factors for continuous use intention.
        Serv Bus. 2020; 14: 503-531
        • Anderson J
        • Leubner J
        • Brown SR.
        EHR overtime: an analysis of time spent after hours by family physicians.
        Fam Med. 2020; 52: 135-137
      4. Medicare program; revisions to payment policies under the physician fee schedule and other revisions to part B for CY 2019 Medicare shared savings program requirements; quality payment program; Medicaid promoting interoperability program; quality payment program-extreme and uncontrollable circumstance policy for the 2019 MIPS payment year; provisions From the Medicare Shared Savings Program-accountable care organizations-pathways to success; and expanding the use of telehealth services for the treatment of opioid use disorder Under the substance use disorder prevention that promotes opioid recovery and treatment (SUPPORT) for patients and communities act. Federal Register. Available at: https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2019/03/15/2019-04803/medicare-program-revisions-to-payment-policies-under-the-physician-fee-schedule-and-other-revisions. Accessed on May 31, 2022.

        • Lennerz C
        • Pavaci H
        • Grebmer C
        • Semmler V
        • Bourier F
        • Haller B
        • Reents T
        • Hessling G
        • Deisenhofer I
        • Kolb C.
        Electromagnetic interference in cardiac implantable electronic devices: is the use of smartphones safe?.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017; 69: 108-110
        • Dunn J
        • Kidzinski L
        • Runge R
        • Witt D
        • Hicks JL
        • Schüssler-Fiorenza Rose SM
        • Li X
        • Bahmani A
        • Delp SL
        • Hastie T
        • Snyder MP
        Wearable sensors enable personalized predictions of clinical laboratory measurements.
        Nat Med. 2021; 27: 1105-1112
        • Tarakji KG
        • Silva J
        • Chen LY
        • Turakhia MP
        • Perez M
        • Attia ZI
        • Passman R
        • Boissy A
        • Cho DJ
        • Majmudar M
        • Mehta N
        • Wan EY
        • Chung M.
        Digital health and the care of the patient with arrhythmia: what every electrophysiologist needs to know.
        Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2020; 13e007953
      5. Global smart watch market report (2021 to 2030) - COVID-19 growth and change. Business Wire. Available at: https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20210526005524/en/Global-Smart-Watch-Market-Report-2021-to-2030–COVID-19-Growth-and-Change-ResearchAndMarkets.com. Accessed on January 31, 2022.

      6. T4. Smartwatch market share. Available at: https://www.t4.ai/industry/smartwatch-market-share. Accessed on January 18, 2022.

      7. Food and Drug Administration. Digital Health Center of Excellence. Available at: https://www.fda.gov/medical-devices/digital-health-center-excellence. Accessed on February 12, 2022.

      8. Apple. Using Apple Watch for arrhythmia detection. Available at: https://www.apple.com/healthcare/docs/site/Apple_Watch_Arrhythmia_Detection.pdf. Accessed on September 13, 2021.

      9. Food and Drug Administration. De novo classification request for ECG app. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/cdrh_docs/reviews/DEN180044.pdf. Accessed on September 13, 2021.

        • Perez MV
        • Mahaffey KW
        • Hedlin H
        • Rumsfeld JS
        • Garcia A
        • Ferris T
        • Balasubramanian V
        • Russo AM
        • Rajmane A
        • Cheung L
        • Hung G
        • Lee J
        • Kowey P
        • Talati N
        • Nag D
        • Gummidipundi SE
        • Beatty A
        • Hills MT
        • Desai S
        • Granger CB
        • Desai M
        • Turakhia MP
        Apple Heart Study Investigators. Large-scale assessment of a smartwatch to identify atrial fibrillation.
        N Engl J Med. 2019; 381: 1909-1917
      10. Savvides L. How the Apple Watch Series 6 compares to the Fitbit Sense: 5 main takeaways. CNET. Available at: https://www.cnet.com/tech/mobile/how-the-apple-watch-series-6-compares-to-the-fitbit-sense-5-main-takeaways.Accessed on February 12, 2022.

      11. O'Riordan M. FDA, EU clear Fitbit ECG to detect atrial fibrillation. tctmd. Available at: https://www.tctmd.com/news/fda-eu-clear-fitbit-ecg-detect-atrial-fibrillation. Accessed on September 13, 2021.

      12. Google. New Fitbit feature makes AFib detection more accessible. Available at: https://blog.google/products/fitbit/irregular-heart-rhythm-notifications. Accessed on May 23, 2022.

      13. American Heart Association. Novel algorithm on wearable devices can detect irregular heartbeat, may prompt early care. Available at: https://newsroom.heart.org/news/novel-algorithm-on-wearable-devices-can-detect-irregular-heartbeat-may-prompt-early-care. Accessed on May 23, 2022.

      14. Food and Drug Administration. FDA Samsung ECG monitor App. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/cdrh_docs/pdf20/K201168.pdf. Accessed on September 13, 2021.

      15. Samsung. FDA-cleared electrocardiogram monitor app is available in the US starting today on Galaxy Watch3 and Galaxy watch Active2. Available at: https://news.samsung.com/global/fda-cleared-electrocardiogram-monitor-app-is-available-in-the-us-starting-today-on-galaxy-watch3-and-galaxy-watch-active2. Accessed on February 12, 2022.

        • Montgomery K
        • Chester J
        • Kopp K.
        Health wearables: ensuring fairness, preventing discrimination, and promoting equity in an emerging Internet-of-things environment.
        J Inf Policy. 2018; 8: 34-77
      16. Farr C. Apple and Aetna are teaming up on a new app to help track and reward healthy behavior. CNBC. Available at: https://www.cnbc.com/2019/01/28/apple-aetna-team-up-on-attain-health-tracking-app.html. Accessed on May 31, 2022.

        • Raber I
        • McCarthy CP
        • Yeh RW.
        Health insurance and mobile health devices: opportunities and concerns.
        JAMA. 2019; 321: 1767-1768
        • Sim I.
        Mobile devices and health.
        N Engl J Med. 2019; 381: 956-968
        • Colvonen PJ
        • DeYoung PN
        • Bosompra NA
        • Owens RL.
        Limiting racial disparities and bias for wearable devices in health science research.
        Sleep. 2020; 43: 1-3
        • Fallow BA
        • Tarumi T
        • Tanaka H.
        Influence of skin type and wavelength on light wave reflectance.
        J Clin Monit Comput. 2013; 27: 313-317