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Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Young Adults With Congenital Heart Disease

      Adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) are at risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS) at a younger age. We sought to obtain the prevalence of MetS in ACHD from a large population-based database in the United States. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with ACHD in Explorys (IBM Inc., Armonk, New York) database from 2008 to 2019. The ACHD cohort included patients aged 20 to 39 years, with moderate and severe congenital heart disease, as defined by ACHD anatomic and physiologic classification. Patients were diagnosed with MetS using the modified International Diabetes Federation's diagnostic criteria. Logistic regression analysis was performed to compare the risk of MetS in the ACHD cohort. MetS was diagnosed in 1,860 of 6,720 patients with ACHD (27.6%). Among 7,359,470 controls, MetS was seen in 742,010 (10.1%). The average age of MetS in ACHD was 31.5 and 32.7 years in controls (p <0.001). The risk of MetS was higher in ACHD versus controls (odds ratio [OR] 2.75 [2.61 to 2.89], p <0.001). The risk of MetS in ACHD was higher in men (OR 3.01 [2.78 to 3.26], p <0.001) and those aged <25 years (men OR 7.57 [6.31 to 9.07], women OR 4.66 [3.85 to 5.63]; p <0.001). The risk of MetS was higher in patients with severe versus moderate ACHD (OR 1.4 [1.56 to 1.74], p <0.001). In conclusion, MetS and its risk factors are more common in young ACHD than in the general population.
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