Temporal Trends in the Utilization and Outcomes of Balloon Aortic Valvuloplasty in the Pre-Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) and TAVI Eras

      We used a nationwide cohort to (1) compare characteristics and outcomes of patients who underwent balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) in pre–transcatheter aortic valve transplantation (TAVI) and TAVI eras, (2) examine trends in utilization and outcomes of BAV from 2005 to 2017, (3) assess the association of BAV procedural volume with hospital-based TAVI volume, and (4) understand trends and outcomes of BAV in TAVI and non-TAVI centers in the TAVI era. Pre-TAVI era included hospitalizations from 2005 to 2011, and TAVI era included hospitalizations from 2012 to 2017. In the TAVI era, hospitals were classified into quartiles based on the number of TAVI procedures performed. Trends in volume of BAV procedures from 2012 to 2017 were assessed in non-TAVI and TAVI centers (based on TAVI volume). Between 2005 and 2017, a total of 6,962 hospitalizations for BAV were identified. There were no significant differences in in-hospital mortality or stroke between pre-TAVI and TAVI eras (mortality: pre-TAVI, 8.5% vs TAVI era, 9.3%, p = 0.354; stroke: pre-TAVI, 1.9% vs TAVI era, 1.3%, p = 0.083). However, acute kidney injury was more prevalent in the TAVI era and blood transfusion in the pre-TAVI era. Importantly, patients who underwent BAV in the TAVI era were more likely to have a greater number of co-morbidities and to undergo nonelective procedures. From 2005 to 2017, there was 10-fold increase in utilization of BAV. In the TAVI era, the maximum increase in number of BAV procedures was seen in hospitals with highest TAVI volume. In conclusion, although BAV procedural volume increased approximately 10-fold between 2005 and 2017, with concomitant expansion of TAVI, rates of mortality and stroke have remained stable. Despite this, the rate of BAV utilization continues to increase, thereby indicating a significant opportunity to improve outcomes in this patient population.
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