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Transcatheter and Surgical Aortic Valve Implantation in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults With Congenital Heart Disease

      Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is common in adults but rare in children and adolescents. Since 2014, our institution has incorporated a transcatheter approach as an option for aortic valve replacement in this population. The purpose of this study was to compare short-term outcomes of TAVI with surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). This single-center, retrospective study included patients aged 10 to 21 years who had a native SAVR or TAVI between January 2010 to April 2020. Comparative analysis of baseline characteristics and a composite outcome (stroke within 6 months, readmission within 30 days, death) between SAVR and TAVI were made using chi-square test or Wilcoxon rank sum test, as appropriate. Of the 77 patients who underwent native aortic valve implantation during the study period (60 SAVR, 17 TAVI), 46 were aged 10 to 21 years (30 SAVR, 16 TAVI). Median follow-up was 3.8 years (interquartile range 1.5 to 4.9) for the SAVR group and 1.5 years (interquartile range 1.1 to 1.2) for the TAVI group. There was no difference in the composite outcome between groups. Patients in the SAVR group were more likely to have undergone concomitant surgical intervention and have longer intensive care unit and hospital stays. In conclusion, our study suggests similar short-term outcomes between SAVR and TAVI in children and young adults aged 10 to 21 years. Longer-term studies are essential to understand the utility of TAVI and to better consider the option of a transcatheter approach as an alternative to SAVR in the pediatric population.
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