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Age-Specific Relation of Cardiovascular Health Metrics With Incident Cardiovascular Disease

      We examined the age-related differences in cardiovascular health (CVH) metrics for incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). Analyses were conducted using data from the JMDC Claims Database from 2005 to 2020 (n = 2,728,427; mean age 44.9 ± 11.0 years; 56.2% men). Participants were categorized on the basis of age: 20 to 49 years (n = 1,800,161), 50 to 59 years (n = 644,703), and 60 to 75 years (n = 283,563). Ideal CVH metrics included nonsmoking, body mass index <25 kg/m2, physical activity at goal, not skipping breakfast, blood pressure <120/80 mm Hg, fasting plasma glucose <100 mg/dL, and total cholesterol <200 mg/dL. Over a mean follow-up of 1,194 ± 917 days, 5,988 myocardial infarction (MI), 53,409 angina pectoris, 26,530 stroke, and 52,712 heart failure (HF) events were recorded. Number of the nonideal CVH metrics was associated with incident MI, angina pectoris, stroke, and HF in all age categories. However, the association of the number of nonideal CVH metrics with incident CVD was modified by age categories and was more pronounced in participants aged 20 to 49 years. Similarly, the relative risk reduction at 1 year for each CVD event under the virtual condition that an individual with 2 nonideal CVH metrics has decreased them to zero, decreased with age. For example, relative risk reduction for MI was 0.51 in participants aged 20 to 49 years, 0.48 in those aged 50 to 59 years, and 0.40 in those aged 60 to 75 years. In conclusion, CVH metrics were more strongly associated with incident CVD including HF among younger individuals suggesting the importance of optimizing modifiable risk factors and lifestyles in young participants for the primary CVD prevention.
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