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Influence of Household Income on Management and Outcomes of Acute Myocardial Infarction Complicated by Cardiogenic Shock

      The impact of socioeconomic status on care and outcomes of patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock (AMI-CS) remains understudied. Hence, adult admissions with AMI-CS were identified from the National Inpatient Sample database (2005 to 2017) and were divided into quartiles on the basis of median household income for zip code (0 to 25th, 26th to 50th, 51st to 75th, and 76th to 100th). In-hospital mortality, use of cardiac and noncardiac procedures, and resource utilization were compared between all 4 income quartiles. Among a total of 7,805,681 AMI admissions, cardiogenic shock was identified in 409,294 admissions (5.2%) with comparable prevalence of cardiogenic shock across all 4 income quartiles. AMI-CS admissions belonging to the lowest income quartile presented more often with non–ST-elevation myocardial infarction and had comparable use of coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention but lower use of early coronary angiography, early percutaneous coronary intervention, mechanical circulatory support devices, and pulmonary artery catheterization than higher income quartiles. In the adjusted analysis, admissions belonging to the 0 to 25th income quartile (odds ratio [OR] 1.17 [95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15 to 1.20], p <0.001), 26th to 50th quartile (OR 1.11 [95% CI 1.09 to 1.14], p <0.001), and 51st to 75th income quartile (OR 1.06 [95% CI 1.04 to 1.09], p <0.001) had higher adjusted in-hospital mortality than the highest income quartile (76th to 100th). Lowest income quartile admissions had lower rates of palliative care consultations and higher rates of do-not-resuscitate status than the higher income quartiles. Hospitalization charges and length of stay were higher for admissions belonging to the highest income quartile. In conclusion, lowest income quartile AMI-CS admissions were associated with higher rates of non–ST-elevation myocardial infarction, lower use of mechanical circulatory support devices, and higher in-hospital mortality.
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