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Treatment Strategies and Outcomes of Emergency Left Main Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

      Emergency percutaneous coronary intervention of the left main (LM ePCI) coronary artery necessitated by acute coronary syndrome is associated with a high risk of mortality. However, optimal treatment strategies and related outcomes remain undefined in this group. We undertook a multi-center, retrospective, observational cohort study of consecutive patients requiring LM ePCI between 2011 and 2018 and reported the coronary anatomy, treatment strategies, outcomes, and predictors of mortality. A total of 116 consecutive cases were included. Patients were predominantly male (85%) with a median age of 68.0 years; 12 patients (10%) had previous coronary artery bypass grafting. ST-elevation was noted in 76 (66%); 30 (26%) presented with an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOHCA) and 47 (41%) with cardiogenic shock. The most frequent pattern of disease was Medina 1,1,1, seen in 59 patients (51%). The commonest revascularization strategy was provisional stenting (95 cases, 82%) with improved or thrombolysis in myocardial infarction 3 flow seen in 85 cases (73%). All-cause mortality was 35% at 30 days, rising to 58% at 5 years. Adverse predictors of 30-day mortality included presentation with cardiogenic shock (p = 0.018) and OOHCA (p = 0.020), whereas improved flow and/or thrombolysis in myocardial infarction 3 flow in both circumflex and left anterior descending artery afforded a better prognosis (p = 0.028). In conclusion, patients who underwent LM ePCI are a high-risk subgroup and commonly present with cardiogenic shock and OOHCA. Provisional stenting appears to be the preferred option with the successful restoration of coronary flow in most cases despite complex anatomy. High 30-day mortality is driven by the presence of cardiogenic shock, OOHCA, and failure to restore or improve coronary flow.
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