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Temporal Changes in Cardiac Morphology and Its Relationship with Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes in Patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

      In this study, we aimed to assess a large cohort of nonapical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) patients who have undergone 2 serial cardiac magnetic resonance studies to examine morphological dynamics and their correlation to patient characteristics and clinical outcomes. A total of 214 patients with nonapical HC were enrolled in this study, with 2 sequential cardiac magnetic resonance studies separated by a mean interval of 4.8 ± 2.1 years. Progression of indexed left ventricular mass (LVMI) was correlated with lower LVMI at baseline (p <0.00001) and older age >50 years. In terms of maximal wall thickness (MWT), progression was associated with lower baseline MWT and with the presence of LV outflow tract obstruction. No association was demonstrated between the degree of progression of LVMI or MWT and baseline LV volumes, the severity of mitral regurgitation, gender, or the presence of pathogenic HC variants. Progression of left atrial size was significantly associated with the development of atrial fibrillation (p = 0.014; odds ratio 1.18, confidence interval 1.03 to 1.35) and admission for heart failure (p = 0.018; odds ratio 1.18, confidence interval 1.03 to 1.36). No correlation was demonstrated between changes in LV mass or MWT and clinical outcomes of admission for heart failure, progression to New York Heart Association 2/3, progression to end-stage HC, or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation. In conclusion, our study provides novel insights into the natural history of HC from a morphological perspective. It shows that HC is a dynamic disease in which LV morphology and hypertrophy extent change over time, with the presence of risk factors associated with disease progression.
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