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Long-Term Outcomes of Cardiovascular Operations in Children With Connective Tissue Disorders

Published:September 19, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2022.03.054
      Connective tissue disorders can be associated with significant cardiovascular morbidity needing cardiac surgery during childhood. In this retrospective study, we used the Pediatric Cardiac Care Consortium, a multicenter United States-based registry of pediatric cardiac interventions, to describe the long-term outcomes of patients who underwent their first surgery for connective tissue-related cardiovascular conditions aged <21 years. Between 1982 and 2003, a total of 103 patients were enrolled who underwent cardiac surgery for a connective tissue-related cardiovascular disorder, including 3 severe infantile cases operated on within the first year of life. Most patients underwent aortic site surgery (n = 85) as a composite graft (n = 50), valve-sparing (n = 33), or other aortic surgery (n = 2). The remaining patients underwent atrioventricular valve surgery (mitral 17, tricuspid 1). Of the 99 patients surviving to discharge, 80 (including the 3 infantile) had adequate identifiers for tracking long-term outcomes through 2019 through linkage with the National Death Index and the Organ Procurement. Over a median period of 19.5 years (interquartile range 16.0 to 23.1), 29 deaths and 1 transplant occurred in the noninfantile group, whereas all 3 infantile patients died before the age of 4 years. The postdischarge survival for the noninfantile group was 92.2%, 68.2%, and 56.7% at 10, 20, and 25 years, respectively. Cardiovascular-related pathology contributed to all deaths in the infantile and 89% (n = 27) of deaths for the noninfantile cases after hospital discharge. The significant late attrition from cardiovascular causes emphasizes the need for close monitoring and ongoing management in this population.
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