Utilization of Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators in Patients With Heart Transplant (from National Inpatient Sample Database)

      Heart transplant (HT) recipients represent a unique and vulnerable population in whom medium and long-term outcomes are significantly affected by the risk of arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. The use of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) in this population remains debated. A retrospective analysis of the National Inpatient Sample data between 2009 and 2018 was conducted. Hospitalization data on patients who underwent HT, or who had a preexisting HT, and who received a new ICD were included (excluding the preexisting ICD). Outcomes assessed included inpatient mortality, length of stay, and inflation-adjusted costs. We explored temporal trends in ICD placement and mean length of stay, and predictors of ICD placement. Between 2009 and 2018, 22,673 hospitalizations were recorded for HT, during which patients either received a concurrent new ICD placement (n = 70 [0.31%]) or no new ICD placement (n = 22,603 [99.7%]). During the same period, 146,555 admissions were recorded in patients with a history of HT. ICD placement in patients with a preexisting HT was associated with significantly higher inflation-adjusted costs ($55,680.7 vs $17,219.2; p <0.001). Predictors of ICD placement in preexisting patients with HT included cardiac arrest during hospitalization (odds ratio [OR]:14.3 [3.5 to 58.6]), drug abuse (OR:6.0 [1.3 to 27.1]), and previous PCI (OR:6.0 [2.1 to 17.3]). In conclusion, ICD placement in patients with HT history was associated with significantly higher inflation-adjusted costs. In patients with HT history, factors predicting ICD placement included cardiac arrest at hospitalization, previous PCI, and drug abuse.
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