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Ethnicity in Complex High-Risk but Indicated Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Types and Outcomes

      Complex High-risk but indicated Percutaneous coronary interventions (CHiPs) is increasingly common in contemporary practice. However, data on ethnic differences in CHiP types, outcomes, and trends in patients with stable angina are limited; this is pertinent given the population of Black, Asian, and other ethnic minorities (BAME) in Europe is increasing. We conducted a retrospective analysis of CHiP procedures undertaken in patients with stable angina using data obtained from the BCIS (British Cardiovascular Intervention Society) registry (2006 to 2017). CHiP cases were identified and categorized by ethnicity into White and BAME groups. We then performed multivariable regression analysis and propensity score matching to determine adjusted odds ratios (aORs) of in-hospital mortality, major bleeding, and major adverse cardiovascular and cerebral events (MACCEs) in BAME compared with Whites. Of 424,290 procedure records, 105,949 were CHiP (25.0%) (White 89,038 [84%], BAME 16,911 [16%]). BAME patients were younger (median 68.1 vs 70.6 years). Previous coronary artery bypass surgery (33.4% vs 38.3%), followed by chronic total occlusion percutaneous coronary intervention (31.9% vs 32%) were common CHiP variables in both groups. The third common variable was age 80 years and above (23.6%) in White patients and severe vascular calcifications in BAME patients (18.8%). BAME patients had higher rates of diabetes (41.1 vs 23.6%), hypertension (68 vs 66.5%), previous percutaneous coronary intervention (43.7 vs 37.6%), and previous myocardial infarction (44.9 vs 42.5%), (p <0.001 for all). Mortality (aOR 1.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.8 to 1.5) and MACCE (aOR 1.0, 95% CI 0.8 to 1.1) odds were similar among the groups. Bleeding odds (aOR 0.7, 95% CI 0.6 to 0.9) were lower in BAME. In conclusion, CHiP procedures differed among the ethnic groups. BAME patients were younger and had worse cardiometabolic profiles. Similar odds of death and MACCE were seen in BAME compared with their White counterparts. Bleeding odds were 30% lower in the BAME group.
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