Management and Outcomes of ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction in Hospitalized Frail Patients in the United States

      Cardiovascular diseases and frailty are common conditions of aging populations and often coexist. In this study, we examined the in-hospital management, outcomes, and resource use of frail patients hospitalized for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). This was a retrospective analysis of the 2005–2014 data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Patients were classified into to versus ‘nonfrail’ using the Johns Hopkins Adjusted Clinical Groups frailty-defining diagnosis indicator. The primary outcome was STEMI management, whereas secondary outcomes were in-hospital mortality, length of stay, and cost. Outcomes were compared between frail and nonfrail patients using propensity score-matched analysis. There were 1,360,597 STEMI hospitalizations, of which 36,316 (2.7%) were frail. Propensity score-matched analysis showed that in in-hospital management options for STEMI, the odds of overall revascularization (odds ratio [OR], 0.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.55 to 0.65), percutaneous coronary intervention (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.49 to 0.57), and coronary angiography (OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.55 to 0.64) were significantly lower for frail patients. The odds of receiving coronary artery bypass grafting (OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.48 to 1.86) and overall hemodynamic support (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.39) were significantly higher for frail patients. In-hospital mortality (18.7% vs 8.2%, p <0.001), length of stay (7.7 vs 3.7 days, p <0.001) and costs ($90,060 vs $63,507, p <0.001) were significantly higher in frail patients. Our findings suggest that collaborative efforts by cardiologists and cardiovascular surgeons for identifying frailty in patients with STEMI and incorporating frailty in risk estimation measures may improve management strategies, resource use and optimize patient outcomes.
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