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Relation of Extracardiac Vascular Disease and Outcomes in Patients With Diabetes (1.1 Million) Hospitalized for Acute Myocardial Infarction

      The association between vascular disease and outcomes of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has not been well-defined in the diabetes mellitus (DM) population. All patients with DM presenting with AMI between October 2015 and December 2018 in the National Inpatient Sample database were stratified by number and site of extracardiac vascular comorbidity (cerebrovascular [CVD], renovascular, neural, retinal and peripheral [PAD] diseases). Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) of in-hospital adverse outcomes and procedures. Of 1,116,670 patients with DM who were hospitalized for AMI, 366,165 had ≥1 extracardiac vascular comorbidity (32.8%). Patients with vascular disease had an increased aOR for mortality (aOR 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04 to 1.07), major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs) (aOR 1.19, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.21), stroke (aOR 1.72, 95% CI 1.68 to 1.76), and major bleeding (aOR 1.11, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.13) and had lower odds of receiving coronary angiography (CA) (aOR 0.90, 95% CI 0.90 to 0.91) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (aOR 0.82, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.83) than patients without extracardiac vascular disease. Patients with PAD had the highest odds of mortality (aOR 1.29, 95% CI 1.27 to 1.32), whereas patients with CVD had the greatest odds of MACCEs, stroke, and major bleeding (aOR 1.82, 95% CI 1.78 to 1.87, aOR 4.25, 95% CI 4.10 to 4.40, and aOR 1.51, 95% CI 1.45 to 1.57, respectively). Patients with DM presenting with AMI and concomitant extracardiac vascular disease were more likely to develop clinical outcomes and less likely to undergo CA or PCI. Patients with PAD had the highest risk of mortality, whereas patients with CVD had the greatest risk of MACCEs, stroke, and major bleeding.

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