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Relation of Socioeconomic Status to 1-Year Readmission and Mortality in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction

      Cardiovascular (CV) disease accounts for 1/3 of deaths worldwide and 1/4 of deaths nationwide. Socioeconomic status (SES) affects CV health and outcomes. Previous studies that examined the association of SES and CV outcomes have yielded mixed results. Using a large-scale database, the aim of this study was to assess the magnitude of the association between categorized median household income, an indicator for SES, and nonfatal or fatal acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Using logistic regression models, zip code median household income data from the United States Census Bureau were matched to 1-year rates of hospital readmission for AMI and CV death. Patient outcomes were obtained from the Myocardial Infarction Data Acquisition System, a comprehensive database that includes all patient CV disease admissions to acute care New Jersey hospitals. Our main results indicate that compared with those in the highest household income level (>$68,000), patients in the lowest-income group (<$43,000) had significantly higher risk for AMI readmission (adjusted odds ratio 1.1388, 95% confidence interval 1.0905 to 1.1893, p = 0) and CV death (odds ratio 1.0479, 95% confidence interval 1.0058 to 1.0917, p = 0.0254) after 1 year. This study also found that the likelihood of AMI readmission increased as household income levels decreased. Our findings suggest that healthcare professionals and policy makers should allocate additional resources to low-income communities to reduce disparities in AMI hospital readmissions and AMI case fatalities.
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