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Predictors of Hospital Admissions for Ventricular Arrhythmia or Cardiac Arrest in Patients With Cardiomyopathy

      Although ventricular dysfunction is associated with the occurrence of ventricular arrhythmia (VA), most patients with cardiomyopathy do not experience VA. We therefore investigated other predictors of VA in a large contemporary cohort of patients with cardiomyopathy. All patients at a large academic medical system with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤50% were enrolled at the time of first documented low LVEF. Predictors of hospital admission for VA were examined using multivariable Cox models. The incidence of implantable defibrillator (ICD) placement was also examined. A total of 18,003 patients were enrolled. Over a median follow-up of 3.35 years, 389 patients (2.2%) were admitted for VA (304 of 12,037 [2.5%] among patients with LVEF ≤35% vs 85 of 5,966 [1.4%] among those with LVEF 36% to 50%). Predictors of VA hospitalization included lower LVEF (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.43 per 10% decrease, p <0.001), the presence of an ICD at baseline (HR = 1.63, p = 0.010), higher blood glucose (HR = 1.02 per 10 mg/100 ml increase, p = 0.050), the presence of end-stage renal disease (HR = 3.59, p <0.001), and the presence of liver cirrhosis (HR = 1.93, p = 0.013). During follow-up, 626 patients were implanted with a new ICD. In addition to being admitted with VA, a lower LVEF and a history of coronary artery disease or heart failure were the main predictors of ICD therapy in this population. In conclusion, in addition to more severe cardiomyopathy and the presence of an implanted ICD, metabolic derangements on initial contact are independent predictors of hospital admissions for VA in patients with cardiomyopathy. Noncardiac co-morbidities play an important role in stratifying patients with cardiomyopathy for their risk of VA or cardiac arrest.
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