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Comparison of Long-Term Outcomes in Men versus Women Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

      There has been a significant decrease in mortality associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) in recent decades, although at discordant rates between men and women. Using a well-established multicenter registry, we sought to examine the impact of gender on long-term mortality stratified by indication for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Data from 54,440 consecutive patients (12,805, 23.5% women) undergoing PCI from the Victorian Cardiac Outcomes Registry (2013 to 2018) were analyzed. We aimed to compare gender-related differences of patients undergoing PCI for stable angina pectoris (SAP), non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTEACS) and ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The primary outcome was long-term all-cause mortality. Female patients were older across all indications (SAP: 67 vs 71 years, NSTEACS: 64 vs 69 years, STEMI 61 vs 67 years; p value for all <0.001), with age-adjusted higher rates of diabetes mellitus (p value for all <0.02) and renal impairment (p value for all <0.001), and were more likely to have femoral artery access for intervention (p value for all <0.001). Unadjusted in-hospital and 30-day mortality rates were comparable between men and women across all indications. Compared to men, women had a higher rate of unadjusted long-term mortality (9.0% vs 7.37%; p <0.001). However, after adjusting for variables significant on univariate analysis, female gender was independently associated with improved long-term survival (HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.87; p <0.001). In conclusion, contrary to previous studies, despite being older with a differing clinical profile and interventional approach, women undergoing PCI have a long-term survival advantage.
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