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Contemporary Trends, Predictors and Outcomes of Perforation During Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (From the NCDR Cath PCI Registry)

      Coronary artery perforation (CP) is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Given the marked increase in high-risk and complex PCIs, careful review and understanding of PCI complications may help to improve procedural and clinical outcomes. Our aim was to study the trends, predictors and outcomes of CP in the contemporary era. This cross-sectional multicenter analysis included data collected from institutions participating in the National Cardiovascular Data Registry CathPCI Registry between July 2009 and June 2015. Multivariable logistic regression models were created to identify predictors of CP and compare the in-hospital outcomes of CP and non-CP patients. Of 3,759,268 PCIs performed during the study period, there were 13,779 CP (0.37%). During the study period, the proportion of PCI that developed CP remained unchanged (0.33% to 0.4%) (p for trend 0.16). Chronic total occlusion (CTO) PCI as percentage of total PCI volume increased over the study period (3% to 4%) (p for trend <0.001) with a concomitant significant increase in CTOs with perforation (1.2% to 1.5%, p for trend = 0.02). CTO PCI (Odds Ratio [OR] 2.59) female gender (OR 1.38), saphenous vein graft PCI (OR 1.2), ACC Type C lesion (1.48), cardiogenic shock on presentation (1.15), and use of atherectomy (laser/ rotational) (OR 2.38) were significant predictors of CP. CP patients had significantly higher rates of cardiogenic shock (7.73% vs 1.02%), tamponade (9.6% vs 0.05%) and death (4.87% vs 1.14%) compared with those without CP. Strongest predictors of any adverse events amongst CP were cardiogenic shock (OR 3.93), cardiac arrest (OR 2.02) and use of atherectomy device (OR 2.5). Use of covered stents was also strongly associated with adverse events (OR 3.67) reflecting severity of these CPs. CP in CTO PCI had higher rates of any adverse event than non-CTO CP (26.8% vs 22%, p < 0.001). However non-CTO CP had higher rates of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) (urgent, emergent, or salvage) (5.8% vs 4.5%, p = 0.03) and death (6.9% vs 5.6%, p = 0.04). CP in CABG PCI had fewer adverse events compared with those without previous CABG (16.1% vs 24.7%). In a large real world experience, we identified several clinical and procedural factors associated with increased risk of CP and adverse outcomes. The trends in CP remained constant over the study period.
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