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Comparison of Late Cardiac Death and Myocardial Infarction Rates in Women Vs Men With ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction

      Women and patients with incomplete revascularization (IR) have a worse prognosis after ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, the extent to which IR affects outcomes for women with STEMI compared with men is not well characterized. Thus, we examined late outcomes of 589 consecutive STEMI patients who received percutaneous coronary intervention and assessed SYNTAX scores (SS), both at baseline and after all procedures (residual SS). A residual SS >8 defined IR. The primary end point was cardiac death or myocardial infarction (MI), with median follow-up of 3.6 years [interquartile range [IQR] 2.6 to 4.7]. Women (n = 123) had lower baseline SSs 15.0 [IQR 9 to 20], than men (n = 466), 16.0 [IQR 9 to 20; p = 0.02. After all planned procedures, the residual SS was 5.0 [IQR 0 to 9] in women and 5.0 (IQR 1 to 11] in men, p = 0.37. Cardiac death or MI occurred in (97/589) patients (16%), 24% (30/123) in women and 14% (67/466) in men (hazard ratio [HR] 1.75; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.14 to 2.69; p = 0.01). In patients with residual SYNTAX score (rSS) >8 cardiac death or MI occurred in 43% (15/35) of women and 23% 36/158 men (HR 2.14; 95% CI 1.17 to 3.91; p = 0.01). In patients with rSS = 0 to 8 cardiac death or MI occurred in 17% (15/88) of women and 10% of men (31/308) (HR 1.68; 95% CI 0.91 to 3.12; p = 0.10; interaction p value 0.58). Multivariate analysis found women were 1.77 times more likely than men to experience cardiac death or MI (95% CI 1.13 to 2.77; p = 0.01). In conclusion, we found despite a lower burden of disease at presentation and no difference in rates of IR between men and women, outcome differences were substantial. Women with rSS >8 were twice as likely as men with the same rSS to experience cardiac death or MI post-STEMI. Differences remained significant postrisk adjustment.
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