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Long-Term Outcomes of Chronic Total Occlusion Recanalization Versus Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Complex Non-Occlusive Coronary Artery Disease

Published:November 05, 2019DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2019.10.034
      The durability of chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is uncertain. We aimed to compare the long-term outcomes of CTO PCI with those of complex non-CTO PCI. We built a single-center registry including all patients who underwent CTO and complex non-CTO PCI between 2012 and 2017. Complex non-CTO PCI was defined as: 3 vessels treated, ≥3 stents implanted, total stent length >60 mm, saphenous vein graft intervention, 2-stent bifurcation intervention, left main PCI, protected PCI, or rotational/laser atherectomy. The primary endpoint was target-lesion failure, a composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and target-lesion revascularization. A total of 2,396 patients were included (n=609 CTO PCI, n=1,787 complex non-CTO PCI). Patients who underwent CTO PCI were younger and had higher prevalence of cardiovascular comorbidities. CTO PCI patients exhibited worse procedural metrics and success rate (74% vs 98%, p <0.001). They also suffered a higher incidence of coronary perforation (3.5% vs 2.0%, p = 0.04) and cardiac tamponade (0.8% vs 0.1%, p = 0.001). However, there was no difference in the overall incidence of in-hospital major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (4.1% vs 5.0%, p = 0.40). At 36 months, there were no differences in the incidence of target-lesion failure (10.1% vs 9.9%, p = 0.91) or its individual components, between the CTO and complex non-CTO group. This finding was confirmed on multivariable analysis. In conclusion, CTO PCI is associated with lower success rates and higher risk for coronary perforation and tamponade compared with complex non-CTO PCI. The incidence of other in-hospital and long-term adverse events is similar and reasonably low.
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