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Usefulness of 3-Tesla Cardiac Magnetic Resonance to Detect Mitral Annular Disjunction in Patients With Mitral Valve Prolapse

Published:September 10, 2019DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2019.08.047
      Mitral annulus disjunction (MAD) is characterized by a separation between the atrial wall mitral junction and the left ventricular (LV) free wall. Little is known regarding cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) performance to detect MAD and its prevalence in mitral valve prolapse (MVP). Based on 89 MVP patients (63 women; mean age 64 ± 13) referred for CMR assessment of MR, either from myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVP) (n = 40; 45%) or fibroelastic disease (n = 49; 55%), we sought to assess the frequency of MAD and its consequences on LV morphology. Patients were classified in 2 groups according to MAD presence (MAD+) or absence (MAD−). MAD (measuring 8 ± 4 mm) was diagnosed in 35% (31 of 89) of MVP patients, more frequently in MMVP than fibroelastic disease (60% vs 14%). MAD+ was associated with MMVP; bileaflet MVP and nonsustain ventricular tachycardia but not with the severity of MR. Diagnostic accuracy of transthoracic echocardiography for the detection of MAD was fair (65% sensitivity, 96% specificity) with CMR as reference. MAD+ showed significantly enlarged basal and mid LV diameters and enlarged mitral-annulus diameter. In patients with late gadolinium enhancement, presence of LV fibrosis at level of papillary muscle was more frequent in MAD+. After adjustment on age and MR severity, MMVP, and enlarged end-systolic mitral annulus diameter were independently associated with MAD+. In conclusion, MAD was present in about 1/3 of MVP patients, mostly in MMVP and independent of MR severity. Enlarged mitral-annulus and basal LV diameters, nonsustain ventricular tachycardia and papillary muscle fibrosis were associated with MAD presence.
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