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Comparative Outcomes of Balloon-Expandable S3 Versus Self-Expanding Evolut Bioprostheses for Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation

      To date, comparisons between the balloon-expandable Edwards Sapien S3 (S3) versus the self-expanding Evolut R or PRO (Evolut) valves have been limited with respect to procedural outcomes. We aim to compare the safety, efficacy, and procedural efficiency of the S3 versus the Medtronic Evolut bioprostheses in patients who underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation for severe aortic stenosis. Retrospective analysis was performed of all consecutive transcatheter aortic valve implantation procedures performed through the transfemoral approach with either S3 or Evolut at our hospital between September 2015 and January 2019. A total of 581 patients were included. There were no significant differences between S3 (n = 452) and Evolut (n = 129) concerning in-hospital or 30-day safety outcomes. S3 was associated with significantly shorter fluoroscopy times, lower fluoroscopy Air Kerma, and higher contrast use. S3 had lower postprocedure aortic valve area (1.71 ± 0.45 vs 1.84 ± 0.50 cm2, p = 0.004), larger peak gradient at 30 days (10.7 ± 3.8 vs 7.0 ± 3.2 mm Hg, p <0.001), and lower aortic regurgitation (AR) rates postprocedure (47% vs 33%, p = 0.024) and at 30 days (50% vs 33%, p = 0.008), driven by mild AR. Device type was an independent predictor of AR postprocedure and at 30 days. Patients with ≥mild AR were more likely to have had Evolut valves (odds ratio = 2.94, p <0.001), especially in larger valves (>26 mm). Severe prosthesis-patient mismatch was higher in S3 (14.8% vs 7.9%, p <0.001). In conclusion, S3 is associated with less radiation exposure, higher contrast use, and lower incidence of AR at 30 days. Alternately, S3 has a higher transaortic gradient at 30 days, and higher levels of severe prosthesis-patient mismatch.
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