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Cardiovascular Disease Risk Across a Spectrum of Adverse Plasma Lipid Combinations by Gender and Glycemic Status

      High triglycerides (TG), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and high non–HDL-C levels are risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is unclear whether the combinations of their adverse changes are related with CVD risk in different gender and diabetes status, particularly in Chinese population. This study aims to evaluate the CVD risk associated with different adverse lipid combinations. A total of 38,989 participants from Chinese Multicenter Longitudinal Health Management Cohorts (mean age 42 years; 62% male) without baseline CVD were followed up for incident CVD from 2007 to 2015. Participants with various combinations of baseline TG, non-HDL-C, and HDL-C levels within- or out of range according to Adult Treatment Panel III were grouped into 8 distinct lipid categories. Cox models estimated the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of different lipid categories for CVD. After multivariable adjustment, a low level of HDL-C combined with either a high level of non–HDL-C alone or TG alone were associated with increased CVD risk with adjusted HRs (95% CIs) of 1.77 (1.36 to 2.30) and 2.08 (1.30 to 3.34) in male participants. Diabetic participants with high non–HDL-C and low HDL-C levels (adjusted HR 2.93, 95% CI 1.15 to 7.46), and non-diabetic participants with high TG and low HDL-C levels (adjusted HR 1.73, 95% CI 1.33 to 2.26) had greater risk of incident CVD. These relations remained significant when limited analysis to participants with normal LDL-C levels of <3.4 mmol/L, indicating the various combinations of out-of-range lipid profiles other than LDL-C are associated with different CVD risk and the associations depend on gender and glycemic status.
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