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Incidence, Predictors, and Outcomes of Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Patients Admitted With ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction

      Gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) complicating ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) poses significant management challenges and may be associated with poor outcomes. We sought to evaluate the incidence and outcomes of GIB in STEMI patients using a nationwide database. We identified adults admitted with STEMI between in the National Inpatient Sample (2003 to 2016), and compared the morbidity, mortality, resource utilization, and cost in patients with and without GIB. We assessed rates of endoscopy referral and its associated with mortality. Among 1,450,696 weighted STEMI hospitalizations, 32,624 (2.2%) were complicated with GIB. Patients with GIB were older, and had distinctive characteristics compared to those without GIB. Older age, cardiogenic shock; history of peptic ulcer disease, cirrhosis, anemia, or alcohol use disorder were the strongest predictors of GIB during STEMI hospitalizations. In-hospital mortality was higher in the GIB group (28.2% vs 11.1%, p <0.001). The excess mortality associated with GIB persisted after propensity-score matching, and in sensitivity analyses excluding patients who underwent coronary intervention >24-hours after admission, and those transferred to another hospital. Post-STEMI GIB was associated with more strokes and acute kidney injury, longer hospitalizations, and higher cost. In a logistic regression analysis, GIB was independently associated with mortality (odds ratios [OR] 1.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.85 to 1.97, p <0.001). There was a correlation between undergoing endoscopy and lower in-hospital mortality (unadjusted OR 0.27; 95% CI, 0.24 to 0.29; adjusted-OR 0.30; 95% CI, 0.27 to 0.33; p <0.001). In conclusion, GIB complicating STEMI is uncommon but is associated with excess morbidity, mortality, resource utilization and cost. Referral to endoscopy in this cohort may be associated with reduced in-hospital mortality.
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