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Usefulness of Global Longitudinal Strain for Early Identification of Subclinical Left Ventricular Dysfunction in Patients With Active Cancer

      Cardiotoxicity from cancer therapy has become a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer survivors. The most commonly used definition is cancer therapeutic related cardiac dysfunction defined as a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) reduction of >10%, to a value below 50%. However, according to the recent American and European Society of Echocardiography, global longitudinal strain (GLS) is the optimal parameter for early detection of subclinical left ventricular dysfunction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of GLS reduction in patients with active cancer and its correlation to other echocardiographic parameters. Data were collected as part of the International Cardio-Oncology Registry. All patients performed at least 2 echocardiograms including GLS. We evaluated the frequency of GLS reduction (≥10% relative reduction), its correlation to LVEF reduction and whether there are other predicting echocardiographic parameters. In 64 consecutive patients, 12 (19%) had ≥10% GLS relative reduction, of which 75% had no concomitant ejection fraction reduction. There were no significant differences in the baseline cardiac risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, or smoking). Treatment with Doxorubicin, Pertuzumab, or Ifosfamide was significantly more frequent in patients GLS reduction. No other echocardiographic parameters, including diastolic function or systolic pulmonary artery pressure were significant predictors for GLS reduction. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that GLS reduction is frequent in active cancer patients, precedes LVEF reduction and cannot be anticipated by other echocardiographic parameters. Using GLS routinely during therapy may lead to an early diagnosis of cardiotoxicity.
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