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Usefulness of Tricuspid Annular Diameter to Predict Late Right Sided Heart Failure in Patients With Left Ventricular Assist Device

      Although late-onset right-sided heart failure is recognized as a clinical problem in the treatment of patients with left ventricular assist devices (LVADs), the mechanism and predictors are unknown. Tricuspid valve (TV) deformation leads to the restriction of the leaflet motion and decreased coaptation, resulting in a functional tricuspid regurgitation that may act as a surrogate marker of late right-sided heart failure. This study aimed to investigate the association of preoperative TV deformation (annulus dilatation and leaflet tethering) with late right-sided heart failure development after continuous-flow LVAD implantation. The study cohort consisted of 274 patients who underwent 2-dimensional echocardiography before LVAD implantation. TV annulus diameter and tethering distance were measured in an apical 4-chamber view. Late right-sided heart failure was defined as right-sided heart failure requiring readmission and medical and/or surgical treatment after initial LVAD implantation. During a mean follow-up of 25.1 ± 19.0 months after LVAD implantation, late right-sided heart failure occurred in 33 patients (12.0%). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis demonstrated that TV annulus diameter (hazard ratio 1.221 per 1 mm, p <0.001) was significantly associated with late right-sided heart failure development, whereas leaflet tethering distance was not. The best cut-off value of the TV annular diameter was 41 mm (area under the curve 0.787). Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that patients with dilated TV annulus (TV annular diameter ≥41 mm) exhibited a significantly higher late right-sided heart failure occurrence than those without TV annular enlargement (log-rank p <0.001). In conclusion, preoperative TV annulus diameter, but not leaflet tethering distance, predicted the occurrence of late right-sided heart failure after LVAD implantation.
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