Advertisement

Risk Factors and Trends in Incidence of Heart Failure Following Acute Myocardial Infarction

      Patients who develop heart failure (HF) after an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are at higher risk of adverse fatal and nonfatal outcomes. Published studies on the incidence and associations of HF after infarction have been contradictory, with some reporting increasing and others decreasing incidence. Between 2000 and 2015, 109,717 patients admitted for a first AMI in New Jersey were discharged alive. In the 15 years from 2000 to 2015, the rates of admission for HF in AMI patients who were discharged alive decreased by 60%, from 3.48% to 1.4%, at 1-year follow-up. At 5 years of follow-up, the decline was more pronounced, from 7.21% to 1.4%, an 80% decline. All-cause death, and the combined end point of admission for HF or death, showed decreasing trends. Cox regression indicated a decrease in the risk of admission for HF over time (hazard ratio [HR] 0.955, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.949 to 0.961). Younger age, male gender, and commercial insurance were associated with lower HRs for HF (p <0.001), whereas history of hypertension, diabetes, kidney, or lung disease were associated with higher HRs (p <0.001). There was no significant difference in the rate of HF between subendocardial and transmural AMI (adjusted OR was 0.96, CI 0.90 to 1.03, p = 0.241). Revascularization was associated with a marked decrease in HF admissions (adjusted OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.25, p <0.001 for percutaneous coronary intervention and OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.51, p <0.001 for CABG). In conclusion, the rate of admission for HF after discharge for a first myocardial infarction as well as all-cause death decreased markedly from 2000 to 2015.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to American Journal of Cardiology
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Mozaffarian D.
        • Benjamin E.J.
        • Go A.S.
        • Arnett D.K.
        • Blaha M.J.
        • Cushman M.
        • de Ferranti S.
        • Després J.P.
        • Fullerton H.J.
        • Howard V.J.
        • Huffman M.D.
        • Judd S.E.
        • Kissela B.M.
        • Lackland D.T.
        • Lichtman J.H.
        • Lisabeth L.D.
        • Liu S.
        • Mackey R.H.
        • Matchar D.B.
        • McGuire D.K.
        • Mohler 3rd, E.R.
        • Moy C.S.
        • Muntner P.
        • Mussolino M.E.
        • Nasir K.
        • Neumar R.W.
        • Nichol G.
        • Palaniappan L.
        • Pandey D.K.
        • Reeves M.J.
        • Rodriguez C.J.
        • Sorlie P.D.
        • Stein J.
        • Towfighi A.
        • Turan T.N.
        • Virani S.S.
        • Willey J.Z.
        • Woo D.
        • Yeh R.W.
        • Turner M.B.
        • American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee
        Heart disease and stroke statistics-2015 update: a report from the American Heart Association.
        Circulation. 2015; 131: e29-e322https://doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000152
        • Ryan T.J.
        • Antman E.M.
        • Brooks N.H.
        • Califf R.M.
        • Hillis L.D.
        • Hiratzka L.F.
        • Rapaport E.
        • Riegel B.
        • Russell R.O.
        • Smith III, E.E.
        • Weaver W.D.
        1999 update: ACC/AHA guidelines for the management of patients with acute myocardial infarction. A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 1999; 34: 890-911
        • Briffa T.
        • Hickling S.
        • Knuiman M.
        • Hobbs M.
        • Hung J.
        • Sanfilippo F.M.
        • Jamrozik K.
        • Thompson P.L.
        Long term survival after evidence based treatment of acute myocardial infarction and revascularization: follow-up of population based Perth Monica cohort, 1984–2005.
        BMJ. 2009; 338: b36https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.b36
        • Fox K.A.A.
        • Steg P.G.
        • Eagle K.A.
        • Goodman S.G.
        • Anderson Jr, F.A.
        • Granger C.B.
        • Flather M.D.
        • Budaj A.
        • Quill A.
        • Gore J.M.
        • GRACE Investigators
        Decline in rates of death and heart failure in acute coronary syndromes, 1999–2006.
        JAMA. 2007; 297: 1892-1900
        • Steg P.G.
        • Goldberg R.J.
        • Gore J.M.
        • Fox K.A.
        • Eagle K.A.
        • Flather M.D.
        • Sadiq I.
        • Kasper R.
        • Rushton-Mellor S.K.
        • Anderson F.A.
        • GRACE Investigators
        Baseline characteristics, management practices, and in-hospital outcomes of patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndromes in the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE).
        Am J Cardiol. 2002; 90: 358-363
        • Albert N.M.
        • Lewis C.
        Recognizing and managing asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction: after myocardial infarction.
        Crit Care Nurse. 2008; 28: 20-37
        • Hellermann J.P.
        • Jacobsen S.J.
        • Gersh B.J.
        • Rodeheffer R.J.
        • Reeder G.S.
        • Roger V.L.
        Heart failure after myocardial infarction: a review.
        Am J Med. 2002; 113: 324-330
        • Weir R.A.
        • McMurray J.J.
        • Velazquez E.J.
        Epidemiology of heart failure and left ventricular systolic dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction: prevalence, clinical characteristics, and prognostic importance.
        Am J Cardiol. 2006; 97: 13F-25F
        • Minicucci M.F.
        • Azevedo P.S.
        • Polegato B.F.
        • Paiva S.A.
        • Zornoff L.A.
        Heart failure after myocardial infarction: clinical implications and treatment.
        Clin Cardiol. 2011; 34: 410-414https://doi.org/10.1002/clc.20922
        • Hellermann J.P.
        • Goraya T.Y.
        • Jacobsen S.J.
        • Weston S.A.
        • Reeder G.S.
        • Gersh B.J.
        • Redfield M.M.
        • Rodeheffer R.J.
        • Yawn B.P.
        • Roger V.L.
        Incidence of heart failure after myocardial infarction: is it changing over time?.
        Am J Epidemiol. 2003; 157: 1101-1107
        • Gjesing A.
        • Gislason G.H.
        • Køber L.
        • Gustav Smith J.
        • Christensen S.B.
        • Gustafsson F.
        • Olsen A.M.
        • Torp-Pedersen C.
        • Andersson C.
        Nationwide trends in development of heart failure and mortality after first-time myocardial infarction 1997–2010: a Danish cohort study.
        Eur J Intern Med. 2014; 8: 731-738https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2014.08.009
        • Hung J.
        • Teng T.
        • Finn J.
        • Knuiman M.
        • Briffa T.
        • Stewart S.
        • Sanfilippo F.M.
        • Ridout S.
        • Hobbs M.
        Trends from 1996 to 2007 in incidence and mortality outcomes of heart failure after acute myocardial infarction: a population-based study of 20 812 patients with first acute myocardial infarction in western Australia.
        J Am Heart Assoc. 2013; 2 (e000172)https://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.113.000172
        • Chen J.
        • Hsieh A.
        • Dharmarajan K.
        • Masoudi F.A.
        • Krumholz H.M.
        National trends in the heart failure hospitalization after acute myocardial infarction for Medicare beneficiaries: 1998–2010.
        Circulation. 2013; 128: 2577-2584https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.003668
        • Shafazand M.
        • Rosengren A.
        • Lappas G.
        • Swedberg K.
        • Schaufelberger M.
        Decreasing trends in the incidence of heart failure after acute myocardial infarction from 1993–2004: a study of 175 216 patients with a first acute myocardial infarction in Sweden.
        Euro J Heart Fail. 2011; 13: 135-141https://doi.org/10.1093/eurjhf/hfq205
        • Goldberg R.J.
        • Spencer F.A.
        • Yarzebski J.
        • Lessard D.
        • Gore J.M.
        • Alpert J.S.
        • Dalen J.E.
        A 25-year perspective into the changing landscape of patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction (the Worcester Heart Attack Study).
        Am J Cardiol. 2004; 94: 1373-1378
        • Sanfilippo F.M.
        • Hobbs M.S.
        • Knuiman M.W.
        • Ridout S.C.
        • Bradshaw P.J.
        • Finn J.C.
        • Rankin J.M.
        • Sprivulis P.C.
        • Hung J.
        Can we monitor heart attack in the troponin era: evidence from a population-based cohort study.
        BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2011; 11: 35https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2261-11-35
        • Nedkoff L.J.
        • Briffa T.G.
        • Preen D.B.
        • Sanfilippp F.M.
        • Hung J.
        • Ridout S.C.
        • Knuiman M.
        • Hobbs M.
        Age- and sex-specific trends in the incidence of hospitalized acute coronary syndromes in Western Australia between 1990 and 2005.
        Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2011; 4: 557-564https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.110.960005
        • Velagaleti R.S.
        • Pencina M.J.
        • Murabito J.M.
        • Wang T.J.
        • Parikh N.I.
        • D'Agostino R.B.
        • Levy D.
        • Kannel W.B.
        • Vasan R.S.
        Long-term trends in the incidence of heart failure after myocardial infarction.
        Circulation. 2008; 118: 2057-2062https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.784215
        • Kelly D.J.
        • Gershlick T.
        • Witzenbichler B.
        • Guagliumi G.
        • Fahy M.
        • Dangas G.
        • Mehran R.
        • Stone G.W.
        Incidence and predictors of heart failure following percutaneous coronary intervention in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: the HORIZONS-AMI trial.
        Am Heart J. 2011; 162: 663-670https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2011.08.002
        • Lewis E.F.
        • Moye L.A.
        • Rouleau J.L.
        • Sacks F.M.
        • Arnold J.M.
        • Warnica J.W.
        • Flaker G.C.
        • Braunwald E.
        • Pfeffer M.A.
        • CARE Study
        Predictors of late development of heart failure in stable survivors of myocardial infarction: the CARE Study.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003; 42: 1446-1453
        • O'Connor C.M.
        • Hathaway W.R.
        • Bates E.R.
        • Leimberger J.D.
        • Sigmon K.N.
        • Kereiakes D.J.
        • George B.S.
        • Samaha J.K.
        • Abbottsmith C.W.
        • Candela R.J.
        • Topol E.J.
        • Califf R.M.
        Clinical characteristics and long-term outcome of patients in whom congestive heart failure develops after thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction: development of a predictive model.
        Am Heart J. 1997; 133: 663-673
        • Tonelli M.
        • Wiebe N.
        • Culleton B.
        • House A.
        • Rabbat C.
        • Fok M.
        • McAlister F.
        • Garg A.X.
        Chronic kidney disease and mortality risk: a systematic review.
        J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006; 17: 2034-2047
        • Shroff G.R.
        • Frederick P.D.
        • Herzog C.A.
        Renal failure and acute myocardial infarction: clinical characteristics in advanced chronic kidney disease, dialysis, and non-chronic kidney disease patients. A collaborative project of the United States Renal Data System/National Institutes of Health and the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction.
        Am Heart J. 2012; 163: 399-406https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2011.12.002
        • Donaldson G.C.
        • Hurst J.R.
        • Smith C.J.
        • Hubbard R.B.
        • Wedzicha J.A.
        Increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke following exacerbation of COPD.
        Chest. 2010; 137: 1091-1097https://doi.org/10.1378/chest.09-2029
        • De Gennaro L.
        • Brunitti N.D.
        • Correale M.
        • Buquicchio F.
        • Caldarola P.
        • Di Biase M.
        Statin therapy in heart failure: for good, for bad, or indifferent?.
        Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2014; 16: 377https://doi.org/10.1007/s11883-013-0377-x