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Meta-Analysis of Genotype-Guided Versus Standard Dosing of Vitamin K Antagonists

Published:January 12, 2018DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2017.12.023
      Vitamin K antagonist (VKA) is a commonly prescribed anticoagulant with a narrow therapeutic window. Genetic polymorphisms account for high VKA dosage variability. Hence, we performed an updated meta-analysis of all randomized clinical trials (RCTs) comparing genotype-guided VKA versus standard dosing algorithms. We conducted a systematic search of electronic databases from inception to October 2017 for all RCTs. The primary outcome was the percentage of time in therapeutic range (TTR). Secondary outcomes were international normalized ratio >4, major and all bleeding events, thromboembolism, adverse and serious adverse events, and all-cause mortality. We calculated the weighted mean difference for the primary outcome and risk ratio (RR) for secondary outcomes using a random-effect model. We included 20 RCTs and analyzed a total of 5,980 adult patients. Our pooled analysis showed greater improvement in TTR for the genotype-guided group in comparison with the standard group (mean difference 3.41%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.71 to 6.10, p = 0.01). In addition, there were significant reductions in major and all bleeding events ((RR 0.35, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.63, p = 0.0004) and (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.95, p = 0.01), respectively). However, there were no significant differences between the groups for international normalized ratio >4 (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.00, p = 0.06), thromboembolism (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.56 to 1.17, p = 0.25), serious adverse events (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.03, p = 0.08), any adverse events (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.01, p = 0.07), or all-cause mortality (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.32 to 1.66, p = 0.46). In conclusion, genotype-guided VKA dosing can improve the TTR and reduce the risk for bleeding episodes, in comparison with standard dosing algorithms.
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