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Effect of the Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9 Inhibitor Evolocumab on Glycemia, Body Weight, and New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus

      Statin therapy modestly increases new-onset diabetes risk. The effect of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibition on new-onset diabetes, glycemia, and weight remains unclear. We studied the effects of the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitor evolocumab on fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin, weight, and new-onset diabetes mellitus. We pooled 1-year (48-week) data for participants who had completed an evolocumab parent study before entering an open-label extension (OLE) trial. Data were available for 4,802 participants (1,602 on standard of care [SOC]; 3,200 on evolocumab plus SOC) in 2 OLE trials. Evolocumab lowered low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by approximately 60% compared with SOC alone. Over the first year of the OLE trials, there was no difference in median (Q1, Q3) change in glycated hemoglobin (0.1% [−0.1, 0.2] for both SOC and evolocumab plus SOC) and fasting plasma glucose (0.06 mmol/L [−0.28, 0.38 mmol/L] for SOC and 0.06 mmol/L [−0.28, 0.44 mmol/L] for evolocumab plus SOC). Mean weight change (standard error) at 1 year was −0.1 kg (0.2) on SOC compared with 0.3 kg (0.1) on evolocumab plus SOC. The exposure-adjusted incidence rate (95% confidence intervals) for new-onset diabetes per 100 patient years was 3.7 (2.9 to 4.7) on control/SOC alone and 3.9 (3.2 to 4.6) on evolocumab/evolocumab plus SOC treatment. Glycemic changes observed in 6,430 participants at week 12 in the parent studies were comparable with OLE trial findings. In conclusion, evolocumab therapy has no effect on glucose homeostasis over 1 year of open-label treatment.
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