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Gender Differences in the Trends of Hospitalizations for Acute Stroke Among Patients With Atrial Fibrillation in the United States: 2005 to 2014

      Female gender was included in stroke prediction algorithms in an attempt to improve anticoagulation rates in women with atrial fibrillation (AF). It is unclear if these efforts reduced stroke burden in women with AF. To bridge this literature gap, using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, we assessed gender differences in the trends of hospitalizations for stroke among patients with AF in the United States in 2005 to 2014. International classification of diseases, 9th revision, clinical modification codes were used to abstract AF and stroke diagnoses. From 2005 to 2014, 18,413,291 hospitalizations of women with AF and 18,035,866 hospitalizations of men with AF were reported. Of these, 740,635 hospitalizations in women and 595,730 hospitalizations in men had stroke as the primary diagnosis. Age-adjusted stroke hospitalizations increased in women (443 per million in 2005 to 495 per million in 2014) as well as in men (351 per million in 2005 to 453 per million in 2014) (p trend < 0.001). Further, anticoagulation rates increased in women (11.5% in 2005 to 24.0% in 2014) as well as in men (11.7% in 2005 to 24.9% in 2014). Stroke hospitalizations involving anticoagulated patients with AF decreased in women (411 per million in 2005 to 347 per million in 2014) as well as in men (402 per million in 2005 to 311 per million in 2014) (p trend < 0.001). In conclusion, although we noted an increasing trend of stroke hospitalizations in both genders, it is reassuring to note that stroke hospitalizations involving anticoagulated patients with AF is decreasing in both genders and in particular among women.
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