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Severe Mental Illness and Clinical Outcome After Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

      The mechanisms behind the increased mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction and co-existing severe mental illness (SMI) compared with non-SMI patients remain unclear. We studied 12,102 patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention, of whom 457 had SMI. The primary outcome was major adverse cardiac events (death, myocardial infarction, target vessel revascularization) at 30 days, 1 year, 2 years, and maximum follow-up. Patients with SMI were younger, more often women, had higher prevalence of active smoking and diabetes, and had a longer duration of symptoms than patients without SMI. There were no substantial differences in the in-hospital treatment of patients with and without SMI. Fewer SMI patients were treated with the recommended medications during follow up; however, the absolute differences were modest. Compared with non-SMI patients, the cumulative risks of major adverse cardiac events after 1 year, 2 years, and maximum follow-up were higher among SMI patients [hazard ratio 1.27 (1.02 to 1.57), hazard ratio 1.32 (1.09 to 1.60), and hazard ratio 1.43 (1.25 to 1.65), respectively]. Even after adjustment for differences in baseline characteristics, the differences in outcome persisted. In conclusion, compared with patients without SMI, primary percutaneous coronary intervention treated patients with SMI had a worse baseline risk profile. No differences in in-hospital treatments were found. Although the absolute differences were small, SMI patients were less likely to receive recommended medical treatment during follow up and they face a worse prognosis, even after adjustment for differences in risk profile. This indicates that SMI per se is likely to have an adverse effect on the prognosis following ST-elevation myocardial infarction.
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