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Usefulness of Intravascular Ultrasound for Predicting Risk of Intraprocedural Stent Thrombosis

Published:December 30, 2015DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2015.12.026
      Intraprocedural stent thrombosis (IPST) is a rare complication of percutaneous coronary intervention that leads to poor outcomes; however, the factors contributing to IPST remain largely unknown. Accordingly, we used intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) to examine the lesion characteristics in patients with IPST. We retrospectively analyzed 1,504 consecutive stent-implanted lesions in 1,324 patients (326 with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI], 403 patients with non–ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome [NSTE-ACS], and 595 patients with stable angina). Of these, IPST occurred in 5 patients during percutaneous coronary intervention (0.4% per patient; 3 with STEMI, 2 with NSTE-ACS). The IVUS characteristics of plaques that developed IPST were compared with those of controls without the evidence of IPST (non-IPST; n = 15) who were matched by age, gender, lesion location, and clinical presentation (STEMI, NSTE-ACS, or stable angina). All 5 lesions that led to IPST had ruptured plaques with positive remodeling and attenuation. Plaque rupture was also observed in 40% of the non-IPST group. Multiple plaque ruptures in the culprit lesion were more common in the IPST group (80% vs 7%; p <0.01). The maximum cavity area was larger in the IPST group than in the non-IPST group having plaque rupture (4.6 mm2 [interquartile range, 4.3 to 6.5] vs 2.4 mm2 [1.8 to 2.9]; p <0.01). In conclusion, we found using IVUS that multiple plaque ruptures with larger cavities more often evolved into IPST.
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