Echocardiographic (echo) and blood pressure (BP) reference values may help identify athletes at cardiovascular risk, yet benchmarks are inadequate for collegiate American-style football (ASF) players. Our purpose was to describe echo characteristics and BP values in collegiate ASF athletes compared with normal. First-year players (n = 80, age = 18 ± 1 years, height = 186 ± 7 cm, weight = 100.1 ± 22.0 kg, body mass index = 28.7 ± 5.0), body surface area [BSA] = 2.24 ± 0.25; percentage fat = 16.5 ± 9.7%) were measured for systolic and diastolic BP, and underwent echo procedures by a certified sonographer. Data analyses included simple statistics, Pearson r, frequencies in normal ranges, and t test; α = 0.05. Selected echo measurements (and indexed by BSA) were: left ventricular (LV) internal diameter diastole = 5.3 ± 0.5 cm (2.4 ± 0.3); left atrial diameter = 3.9 ± 0.5 cm (1.8 ± 0.2): LV end-diastolic volume = 138 ± 30 ml (62 ± 11); septal wall thickness = 1.0 ± 0.2 cm (0.5 ± 0.1); LV posterior wall thickness = 1.0 ± 0.1 cm (0.5 ± 0.1), LV mass = 212 ± 46 g (95 ± 18); and relative wall thickness = 0.39 ± 0.07. Correlations between BSA and echo variables were significant (r = 0.26 to 0.50). Indexing by BSA reduced percentages above reference ranges from 36% to 7%. Septal wall thickness index was significantly greater in black (0.5 ± 0.1) than nonblack (0.4 ± 0.1) athletes. Fifty-nine athletes were hypertensive or prehypertensive, and diastolic BP was significantly greater in black (76 ± 10 mm Hg) compared with nonblack athletes (71 ± 8 mm Hg). ASF athletes demonstrated LV wall thicknesses and cavity sizes consistent with sport-training hypertrophy but which were unremarkable when indexed by BSA. Ethnicity generally did not influence echo variables. No ASF players were identified with cardiac dysfunction or disease.
To read this article in full you will need to make a payment
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
Subscribe:Subscribe to American Journal of Cardiology
Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
Already an online subscriber? Sign in
Register: Create an account
Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect
- Cardiac structure and function in women basketball athletes: seasonal variation and comparisons with nonathletic controls.Res Q Exerc Sport. 1992; 63: 393-401
- The heart of trained athletes: cardiac remodeling and the risks of sports, including sudden death.Circulation. 2006; 114: 1633-1644
- Is the ‘athlete's heart’ arrhythmogenic? Implications for sudden cardiac death.Sports Med. 2011; 41: 401-411
- Recommendations for chamber quantification: a report from the American Society of Echocardiography's Guidelines and Standards Committee and the Chamber Quantification Writing Group, developed in conjunction with the European Association of Echocardiography, a branch of the European Society of Cardiology.J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2005; 18: 1440-1463
- Left ventricular mass and the risk of sudden cardiac death: a population-based study.JAHA. 2014; 3: e001285
- Prognostic implications of echocardiographically determined left ventricular mass in the Framingham Heart Study.N Engl J Med. 1990; 322: 1561-1566
- Echocardiographic characteristics of professional football players.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003; 41: 280-284
- Comparison of National Football League linemen versus nonlinemen of left ventricular mass and left atrial size.Am J Cardiol. 2008; 102: 343-347
- Blood pressure and left ventricular hypertrophy during American-style football participation.Circulation. 2013; 128: 524-531
- Problems in echocardiographic volume determinations - echocardiographic-angiographic correlations in presence or absence of asynergy.Am J Cardiol. 1976; 37: 7-11
- The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure - the JNC 7 report.JAMA. 2003; 289: 2560-2572
- Early screening for cardiovascular abnormalities with preparticipation echocardiography utility of focused physician-operated echocardiography in preparticipation screening of athletes.J Ultrasound Med. 2014; 33: 307-313
- Usefulness of combined history, physical examination, electrocardiogram, and limited echocardiogram in screening adolescent athletes for risk for sudden cardiac death.Am J Cardiol. 2014; 114: 1763-1767
- Cardiovascular screening with electrocardiography and echocardiography in collegiate athletes.Am J Med. 2011; 124: 511-518
- Do big athletes have big hearts? Impact of extreme anthropometry upon cardiac hypertrophy in professional male athletes.Br J Sports Med. 2012; 46: i90-i97
- Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors among National Football League Players.JAMA. 2009; 301: 2111-2119
- Cardiovascular risk factors and coronary atherosclerosis in retired National Football League Players.Am J Cardiol. 2009; 104: 805-811
- DEXA or BMI: clinical considerations for evaluating obesity in collegiate division I-a American football athletes.Clin J Sport Med. 2012; 22: 436-438
- A longitudinal study examining the effects of a season of American football on lipids and lipoproteins.Lipids Health Dis. 2015; 14: 35
Published online: October 18, 2015
Accepted: September 25, 2015
Received in revised form: September 25, 2015
Received: August 1, 2015
See page 134 for disclosure information.
© 2016 Elsevier Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.