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Infective Endocarditis Involving the Pulmonary Valve

Published:October 03, 2015DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2015.09.038
      Pulmonary valve (PV) infective endocarditis (IE) is a rare entity, accounting for 1.5% to 2% of cases of IE. Published data are limited to a few case series and reports. We sought to review the Mayo Clinic experience and describe clinical, echocardiographic, and microbiologic features. We included all patients aged ≥18 years seen from 2000 to 2014 who had a diagnosis of native PV IE and unequivocal echocardiographic involvement of the PV. Nine patients with PV IE were identified. Isolated PV IE was present in 7 (78%) of 9 cases. The median age was 59 years and 22% were women. Three patients had congenital heart disease, 2 had central venous catheters, and 3 had cardiovascular implantable electronic devices. Five patients (56%) received chronic immunosuppressive therapy. Enterococcus faecalis and viridans group streptococci were the most common pathogens, isolated in 22% of cases each. Transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) and transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) were done in 6 and 7 patients, respectively. Four patients underwent both procedures. TTE was diagnostic in all cases, but TEE failed to detect PV involvement in 1 patient. Median follow-up was 1.8 years. Five patients (56%) underwent PV replacement. There were no operative deaths. One patient had sudden death during follow-up, unrelated to his PV IE episode. Our results suggest that PV IE is rare but carries significant morbidity. TTE and TEE provide complementary information with TEE providing better visualization of other cardiac structures. Our findings of a high prevalence of immunosuppressive therapy and cardiovascular implantable electronic devices have not been previously reported and deserve further investigation.
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