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Systematic Review of Effectiveness of Oral Sirolimus After Bare-Metal Stenting of Coronary Arteries for Prevention of In-Stent Restenosis

      Neointimal hyperplasia after percutaneous coronary intervention is a major determinant of in-stent restenosis (ISR). Drug-eluting stents (DES) mitigate neointimal hyperplasia and thereby lead to a lower rate of ISR compared with bare-metal stents (BMS). Recent studies have demonstrated that short-term use of oral sirolimus after BMS leads to a significant reduction in ISR. We therefore sought to do a systematic review of studies to determine the angiographic and clinical benefits of early short-term use of oral sirolimus after BMS of native coronary arteries. We conducted PubMed, Embase, Cochrane database review, and Web of Science search of studies comparing oral sirolimus after BMS to BMS alone or DES. Outcomes analyzed were ISR and target lesion revascularization (TLR) as well as major adverse cardiovascular events. A total of 488 patients from 4 studies were included in the review (2006 to 2010). Three studies, comparing BMS alone versus BMS plus oral sirolimus, demonstrated significant reduction in ISR in the oral sirolimus group. Two of these studies also demonstrated significant reduction in TLR at 6-12 month follow-up. The fourth study comparing BMS plus oral sirolimus versus DES showed a lower but nonsignificant reduction in TLR in addition to significant cost saving in the group treated with oral sirolimus. In conclusion, our systematic review demonstrates that early short-term systemic use of sirolimus after BMS resulted in a significant reduction in ISR and TLR. In addition, ISR rates were comparable to DES with the added benefit of cost saving.
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