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Race/Ethnic Disparities in Risk Factor Control and Survival in the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) Trial

      This study sought to evaluate the impact of race/ethnicity on cardiovascular risk factor control and on clinical outcomes in a setting of comparable access to medical care. The BARI 2D trial enrolled 1,750 participants from the United States and Canada that self-reported either White non-Hispanic (n = 1,189), Black non-Hispanic (n = 349), or Hispanic (n = 212) race/ethnicity. Participants had type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease and were randomized to cardiac and glycemic treatment strategies. All patients received intensive target-based medical treatment for cardiac risk factors. Average follow-up was 5.3 years. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional hazards regression models were constructed to assess potential differences in mortality and cardiovascular outcomes across racial/ethnic groups. Long-term risk of death and death/myocardial infarction/stroke did not vary significantly by race/ethnicity (5-year death: 11.0% Whites, 13.7% Blacks, 8.7% Hispanics, p = 0.19; adjusted hazard ratio 1.18 Black versus White, 95% confidence interval 0.84 to 1.67, p = 0.33 and 0.82 Hispanic versus White, 95% confidence interval 0.51 to 1.34, p = 0.43). Among the 1,168 patients with suboptimal risk factor control at baseline, the ability to attain better risk factor control during the trial was associated with higher 5-year survival (71%, 86% and 95% for patients with 0 or 1, 2, and 3 factors in control, respectively, p <0.001); this pattern was observed within each race/ethnic group. In conclusion, significant race/ethnic differences in cardiac risk profiles that persisted during follow-up did not translate into significant differences in 5-year death or death/MI/stroke.
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