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Validation and Quantification of Genetic Determinants of Lipoprotein-a Levels and Predictive Value for Angiographic Coronary Artery Disease

      Lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) has gained attention as a heritable coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factor and therapeutic target. Two genetic variants in the LPA gene have been reported to influence Lp(a) levels and increase CAD risk. The aim of this study was to prospectively test these variants for their associations with Lp(a) and CAD risk. Participants (n = 1,400) in the Intermountain Heart Collaborative Study Registry who had Lp(a) cholesterol levels determined at coronary angiography were genotyped for rs3798220 and rs1045587 in LPA. Variants were detected by Taqman polymerase chain reaction. Chi-square and linear and logistic regression tests were used as appropriate among genotypes for Lp(a) and angiographic CAD. Age averaged 63 years; 65% were men; and severe CAD was present in 57%, mild CAD in 12%, and no CAD in 31%. Minor allele frequencies were 0.023 for rs3798220 and 0.090 for rs10455872. In multivariate modeling, only rs10455872 (odds ratio [OR] 2.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.67 to 3.33, p = 1.75 × 10−9) and rs3798220 (OR 1.99, 95% CI 0.99 to 4.00, p = 0.065) contributed to the prediction of elevated Lp(a) cholesterol. Lp(a) cholesterol was weakly associated with CAD (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.37, p = 0.055). Rs10455872 strongly predicted prevalent CAD (per allele OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.91, p = 0.0172); the effect size for the rare rs3798220 variant was similar (dominant OR 1.47, 95% CI 0.81 to 2.67, p = 0.20), but power was limited to demonstrate significance. The combined genotype explained only a small percentage (≤4%) of variability in Lp(a) cholesterol and prevalence of angiographic CAD. In conclusion, heritable contributions of LPA rs10455872 and rs3798220 to Lp(a) cholesterol levels and to angiographic CAD were prospectively assessed in this study. The percentage of intersubject variability in Lp(a) cholesterol and the percentage of prevalent CAD explained were small.
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