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Impact of Obesity on Ventricular Size and Function in Children, Adolescents and Adults With Tetralogy of Fallot After Initial Repair

      Obesity is epidemic in congenital heart disease, with reported rates of 16% to 26% in children and 54% in adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of obesity on ventricular function and size in patients after initial repair for tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Cardiac magnetic resonance studies in normal-weight (body mass index percentile <85th) and obese (body mass index percentile ≥95th) children and adults with repaired tetralogy of Fallot were reviewed. The left ventricular ejection fraction, the right ventricular ejection fraction, left and right ventricular end-diastolic volumes indexed to actual body surface area, to height, and to body surface area using ideal body weight were evaluated in 36 obese patients and 72 age-matched normal-weight patients. Compared with normal-weight patients, obese patients had lower right ventricular ejection fractions (mean 46 ± 9% vs 51 ± 7%, p = 0.003) and left ventricular ejection fractions (mean 57 ± 9% vs 61 ± 6%, p = 0.017), higher right ventricular end-diastolic volumes indexed to height (mean 160 ± 59 vs 135 ± 41 ml/m, p = 0.015) and left ventricular end-diastolic volumes indexed to height (mean 86 ± 25 vs 70 ± 20 ml/m, p = 0.001), and higher right ventricular end-diastolic volumes indexed to ideal body weight (mean 166 ± 55 vs 144 ± 38 ml/m2, p = 0.020) and left ventricular end-diastolic volumes indexed to ideal body weight (mean 90 ± 22 vs 75 ± 15 ml/m2, p <0.001). In conclusion, obesity is a modifiable risk factor associated with worsened biventricular systolic function and biventricular dilation in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot. The standard method of indexing ventricular volumes using actual body surface area may underestimate volume load in obese patients.
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