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Usefulness of the D-Dimer Concentration as a Predictor of Mortality in Patients With Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

      During cardiac arrest and after cardiopulmonary resuscitation, activation of blood coagulation occurs, with a lack of adequate endogenous fibrinolysis. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the serum D-dimer concentration on admission is an independent predictor of all-cause mortality in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. We enrolled 182 consecutive patients (122 men, mean age 64.3 ± 15 years), who had presented to the emergency department from January 2007 to July 2012 because of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Information about the initial arrest rhythm, biochemical parameters, including the D-dimer concentration on admission, neurologic outcomes, and 30-day all-cause mortality were retrospectively collected. Of the 182 patients, 79 (43.4%) had died. The patients who died had had lower systolic (100 ± 39.6 vs 120.5 ± 26.9 mm Hg; p = 0.0004) and diastolic (58.3 ± 24.1 vs 74 ± 16.3 mm Hg; p <0.0001) blood pressure on admission. The deceased patients more often had had a history of myocardial infarction (32.9% vs 25.2%; p = 0.04) and less often had had an initial shockable rhythm (41.8% vs 60.2%; p = 0.02). The patients who died had had a significantly higher mean D-dimer concentration (9,113.6 ± 5,979.2 vs 6,121.6 ± 4,597.5 μg/L; p = 0.005) compared with patients who stayed alive. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, an on-admission D-dimer concentration >5,205 μg/L (odds ratio 5.7, 95% confidence interval 1.22 to 26.69) and hemoglobin concentration (odds ratio 1.66, 95% confidence interval 1.13 to 2.43) were strong and independent predictors of all-cause mortality. In conclusion, patients with a higher D-dimer concentration on admission had a poorer prognosis. The D-dimer concentration was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality.
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