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Adverse Events After Coronary Revascularization Procedures in California 2000 to 2010

      Public reporting of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) mortality in California was initiated in 2003. Drug-eluting stents were widely introduced in the same year. Adverse events after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and CABG were analyzed to study the impact of these events. Annual California hospital discharge data were collected from 2000 through 2010. In-hospital mortality and hospital readmission for adverse events <1 year were determined for patients undergoing isolated CABG, PCI for acute coronary syndrome (PCI-ACS), and all other PCIs (PCI-noACS). CABG volume peaked in 2000 and subsequently decreased by 58%; PCI volume peaked in 2005 and subsequently decreased by 20%. After 2003, in-hospital mortality and 1-year mortality for CABG decreased whereas mortality after PCI remained unchanged. Event rates for acute myocardial infarction and stroke varied little over the decade; acute myocardial infarction at 1 year was 2.5% to 2.8% (CABG), 4.5% to 5.4% (PCI-ACS), and 4.6% to 5.8% (PCI-noACS); stroke rate was 1.4% to 1.7% (CABG), 1.2% to 1.6% (PCI-ACS), and 1.0% to 1.2% (PCI-noACS). Reintervention for PCI decreased markedly, from 18.8% to 12.8% (PCI-ACS) and 22.5% to 13.3% (PCI-noACS). Multiple adverse cardiovascular and cerebral events rate at 1 year decreased from 10.8% to 9.4% (CABG), 26.5% to 21.2% (PCI-ACS), and 26.8% to 18.4% (PCI-noACS). Excluding reinterventions, multiple adverse cardiovascular and cerebral events rate at 1 year was 8.3% (CABG), 14.6% (PCI-ACS), and 10.1% (PCI-noACS) in 2010. In conclusion, the volume of coronary interventions in California decreased whereas adverse event rates decreased after the introduction of public reporting and drug-eluting stents. Lower procedure volume combined with improved outcomes resulted in an annual decrease of >6,000 adverse events by the end of the decade.
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