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WILLIAM EDWARD BODEN, MD: A Conversation With the Editor

      Bill Boden was born in Rochester, New York, on June 21, 1948, and he grew up there. He graduated from the McQuaid Jesuit High School in 1966, from LeMoyne College in Syracuse with honors in 1970, and from SUNY Upstate Medical School in Syracuse, New York, in 1974. His internship and 2-year residency in internal medicine was at the Boston University (BU) Hospitals. Between his resident years, he was a research fellow in the Cardiology Section also at Boston University Hospitals. His clinical fellowship in cardiology was at Tufts-New England Medical Center in Boston. His first staff position was at the Miriam Hospital of Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island, where he was director of the coronary care unit. In 1986, he moved to Detroit as director of the coronary care unit and codirector of the cardiovascular clinical trials, and he was associate professor of internal medicine at Wayne State University School of Medicine. In 1989, he returned to Boston as chief of the section of cardiovascular medicine at the Boston VA Medical Center and professor of medicine at Tufts University School of Medicine. In 1994, he became professor of medicine at Boston University School of Medicine, and in 1996, he returned to Syracuse as professor and associate chairman of the Department of Medicine of the State University of New York Health Science Center. In 2000, he moved to Hartford, Connecticut, as director of cardiology and as program director of the Henry Low Heart Center and professor of medicine at the University of Connecticut School of Medicine. In 2006, he moved to Buffalo as chief of cardiology at the Buffalo General and Millard Fillmore Hospitals and professor of medicine and preventive medicine at the University of Buffalo, State University of New York School of Medicine. In late 2011, he assumed a new position as chief of medicine at the Albany Stratton VA Medical Center and vice chairman of the Department of Medicine at the Albany Medical Center, where he will be a professor of medicine.
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        • Boden W.E.
        Changes in tidal volume, frequency and ventilation induced by their measurement.
        J Appl Physiol. 1972; 33: 252-254
        • Boden W.E.
        • Liang C.
        • Apstein C.S.
        • Hood Jr, W.B.
        Experimental myocardial infarction: XVI.
        Am J Cardiol. 1978; 41: 523-530
        • Boden W.E.
        • Liang C.S.
        • Hood Jr, W.B.
        Postextrasystolic potentiation of regional mechanical performance during prolonged myocardial ischemia in the dog.
        Circulation. 1980; 61: 1063-1070
        • Sherman L.G.
        • Liang C.S.
        • Boden W.E.
        • Hood Jr, W.B.
        Effect of verapamil on mechanical performance of acutely ischemic and reperfused myocardium in the conscious dog.
        Circulation Res. 1981; 48: 224-232
        • Boden W.E.
        • Bough E.W.
        • Korr K.S.
        • Benham I.
        • Gheorghiade M.
        • Caputi A.
        • Shulman R.S.
        Exercise-induced coronary spasm with S-T segment depression and normal coronary arteriography.
        Am J Cardiol. 1981; 48: 193-197
        • Boden W.E.
        • Bough E.W.
        • Benham I.
        • Shulman R.S.
        Unstable angina pectoris with S-T segment elevation and increased creatine kinase activity culminating in extensive recurrent myocardial infarction.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 1983; 2: 11-20
        • Bough E.W.
        • Boden W.E.
        • Korr K.S.
        • Gandsman E.J.
        Left ventricular asynergy in electrocardiographic ”posterior” myocardial infarction.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 1984; 4: 209-215
        • Boden W.E.
        • Bough E.W.
        • Korr K.S.
        • Gandsman E.J.
        • Shulman R.S.
        Inferoseptal myocardial infarction: Another cause of precordial ST-segment depression in transmural inferior wall myocardial infarction?.
        Am J Cardiol. 1984; 54: 1216-1223
        • Boden W.E.
        • Korr K.S.
        • Bough E.W.
        Nifedipine-induced myocardial ischema in refractory angina pectoris.
        J Am Med Assoc. 1985; 8: 1131-1135
        • Boden W.E.
        • Bough E.W.
        • Reichman M.J.
        • Rich V.
        • Young P.M.
        • Korr K.S.
        • Shulman R.S.
        Beneficial effects of high-dose diltiazem in patients with persistent effort angina on beta-blockers and nitrates: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial.
        Circulation. 1985; 71: 1197-1205
        • Gibson R.S.
        • Boden W.E.
        • Theroux P.
        • Strauss H.D.
        • Pratt C.M.
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        • Capone R.J.
        • Crawford M.H.
        • Schlant R.D.
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        • Schechtman K.
        • Perryman M.B.
        • Roberts R.
        • The Diltiazem Re-Infarction Study (DRS) Group
        Diltiazem and reinfarction in patients with non-Q wave myocardial infarction: Results of a double-blind, randomized multicenter trial.
        N Engl J Med. 1986; 315: 423-429
        • Kohl D.W.
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        • Kleiger R.E.
        • Gibson R.S.
        • Schechtman K.B.
        • Capone R.J.
        • Roberts R.
        • Diltiazem Reinfarction Study Group, Brown University, Providence, RI
        Electrocardiographic evolution of posterior myocardial infarction: importance of early precordial S-T segment depression.
        Am J Cardiol. 1987; 59: 782-787
        • Bough E.W.
        • Boden W.E.
        • Korr K.S.
        • Gandsman E.J.
        Left ventricular asynergy in electrocardiographic ”posterior” myocardial infarction.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 1987; 4: 209-215
        • Gibson R.S.
        • Young P.M.
        • Boden W.E.
        • Schechtman K.
        • Roberts R.
        Prognostic significance and beneficial effect of diltiazem on the incidence of early recurrent ischemia after non-Q wave myocardial infarction.
        Am J Cardiol. 1987; 60: 203-209
        • Moss A.J.
        • Abrams J.
        • Bigger J.T.
        • Boden W.E.
        • Bodenheimer M.M.
        • Case R.
        • et al.
        The effect of diltiazem on mortality and reinfarction after myocardial infarction: Results of the multicenter diltiazem post-infarction trial (MDPIT).
        N Engl J Med. 1988; 319: 385-392
        • Boden W.E.
        • Kleiger R.E.
        • Schechtman K.B.
        • Capone R.J.
        • Schwartz D.J.
        • Gibson R.S.
        The clinical significance and prognostic importance of left ventricular hypertrophy in non-Q wave acute myocardial infarction.
        Am J Cardiol. 1988; 62: 1000-1004
        • Boden W.E.
        • Gibson R.S.
        • Schechtman K.B.
        • Kleiger R.E.
        • Schwartz D.J.
        • Capone R.J.
        • Roberts R.
        ST-segment shifts are poor predictors of subsequent Q-wave evolution in acute myocardial infarction: Natural history study of early non-Q-wave myocardial infarction.
        Circulation. 1989; 79: 537-548
        • Boden W.E.
        • Kleiger R.E.
        • Gibson R.S.
        • Reddy B.R.
        • Schechtman K.B.
        • Schwartz D.J.
        • Capone R.J.
        • Roberts R.
        Favorable long-term prognosis of acute non-Q-wave myocardial infarction associated with absent or nonspecific electrocardiographic changes.
        Br Heart J. 1989; 61: 396-402
        • Boden W.E.
        • Gibson R.S.
        • Kleiger R.E.
        • Schechtman K.B.
        • Capone R.J.
        • Schwartz D.J.
        • Roberts R.
        • Diltiazem Reinfarction Study Research Group
        Importance of early recurrent ischemia on one-year survival after non-Q-wave acute myocardial infarction.
        Am J Cardiol. 1989; 64: 799-801
        • Schechtman K.B.
        • Capone R.J.
        • Kleiger R.E.
        • Gibson R.S.
        • Schwartz D.J.
        • Roberts R.
        • Young P.M.
        • Boden W.E.
        • Diltiazem Reinfarction Study Research Group
        Risk stratification of patients with non-Q-wave myocardial infarction: The critical role of ST segment depression.
        Circulation. 1989; 80: 1148-1158
        • Kleiger R.E.
        • Boden W.E.
        • Schechtman K.B.
        • Gibson R.S.
        • Schwartz D.J.
        • Geiger B.J.
        • Capone R.J.
        • Roberts R.
        • Diltiazem Reinfarction Study Group
        Frequency and significance of late evolution of Q-waves in patients with initial non-Q-wave acute myocardial infarction.
        Am J Cardiol. 1990; 65: 23-27
        • Kleiman N.S.
        • Schechtman K.B.
        • Young P.M.
        • Goodman D.A.
        • Boden W.E.
        • Pratt C.M.
        • Roberts R.
        Lack of diurnal variation in the onset of a non-Q-wave infarction.
        Circulation. 1990; 81: 548-555
        • Schechtman K.B.
        • Capone R.J.
        • Kleiger R.E.
        • Gibson R.S.
        • Schwartz D.J.
        • Roberts R.
        • Boden W.E.
        • Diltiazem Reinfarction Study Group
        Differential risk patterns associated with 3 month as compared with 3 to 12 month mortality and reinfarction after non-Q-wave myocardial infarction.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 1990; 15: 940-947
        • Boden W.E.
        • Krone R.J.
        • Kleiger R.E.
        • Oakes D.
        • Greenberg H.
        • Dwyer Jr, E.J.
        • Miller J.P.
        • Abrams J.
        • Coromilas J.
        • Goldstein R.
        • Moss A.J.
        • Multicenter Diltiazem Post-Infarction Trial Research Group
        Electrocardiographic subset analysis of diltiazem administration on long-term outcome after acute myocardial infarction.
        Am J Cardiol. 1991; 67: 335-342
        • Boden W.E.
        Electrocardiographic correlates of reperfusion status after thrombolysis: Is the ”incomplete” or ”interrupted” infarction a non-Q-wave infarction?.
        Am J Cardiol. 1991; 68: 520-524
        • Boden W.E.
        • Moss A.J.
        • Oakes D.
        Hypolipidemic effect of Type IA antiarrhythmic agents in post-infarction patients.
        Circulation. 1992; 85: 2039-2044
        • Schechtman K.B.
        • Kleiger R.E.
        • Boden W.E.
        • Capone R.J.
        • Schwartz D.J.
        • Roberts R.
        • Gibson R.S.
        Relationship between 1-year mortality and infarct location in patients with non-Q-wave myocardial infarction.
        Am Heart J. 1992; 123: 1175-1181
        • Pepine C.J.
        • Kern M.J.
        • Boden W.E.
        The ischemic myocardium: Strategies for preservation and protection.
        Am J Cardiol. 1992; 69: 41B-46B
        • Boden W.E.
        Meta-Analysis in Clinical Trials Reporting: Has a tool become a weapon?.
        Am J of Cardiol. 1992; 69: 681-686
        • Krone R.J.
        • Greenberg H.
        • Dwyer E.
        • Kleiger R.E.
        • Boden W.E.
        Long-term prognostic significance of ST-segment depression during acute myocardial infarction.
        Am J Cardiol. 1993; 72: 361-367
        • Boden W.E.
        • Moss A.J.
        • Herbert P.N.
        • Saritelli A.
        • Oakes D.
        • Eberly S.
        • Multicenter Diltiazem Post-Infarction Trial Research Group
        Effect of long-term diltiazem administration on serum lipids in post-myocardial infarction survivors.
        Am J Cardiol. 1994; 73: 513-515
        • Boden W.E.
        • Brooks W.W.
        • Conrad C.H.
        • Bing O.H.L.
        • Hood Jr, W.B.
        Incomplete delayed functional recovery after reperfusion following myocardial infarction: ”Maimed Myocardium”.
        Am Heart J. 1995; 130: 922-932
        • Boden W.E.
        • Ziesche S.
        • Carson P.E.
        • Conrad C.H.
        • Syat D.
        • Cohn J.N.
        • V-HeFT-III Research Study Group
        Rationale and design of the Third Vasodilator-Heart Failure Trial (V-HeFT-III): Felodipine as adjunctive therapy to enalapril, digoxin and loop diuretics in chronic congestive heart failure.
        Am J Cardiol. 1996; 77: 1078-1082
        • Cohn J.N.
        • Ziesch S.
        • Smith R.
        • Anand I.
        • Dunkman W.B.
        • Loeb H.
        • Cintron G.
        • Boden W.E.
        • Baruch L.
        • Rochin P.
        • Loss L.
        Effect of the calcium antagonist feldipine as supplementary vasodilator therapy in patients with chronic heart failure treated with enalapril: V-HeFT III.
        Circulation. 1997; 96: 856-863
        • Ferry R.D.
        • O'Rourke R.A.
        • Blaustein A.S.
        • Crawford M.H.
        • Deedwania P.C.
        • Carson P.E.
        • Pepine C.J.
        • Thomas R.G.
        • Hlatky M.A.
        • Leppo J.A.
        • Iwane M.K.
        • Kleiger R.E.
        • Zoble R.G.
        • Dai H.
        • Chow B.K.
        • Lavori P.W.
        • Boden W.E.
        Design and baseline characteristics of the Veterans Affairs Non-Q-Wave Infarction Strategies In-Hopital (VANQWISH) Trial.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 1998; 31: 312-320
        • Boden W.E.
        • O'Rourke R.A.
        • Crawford M.H.
        • Blaustein A.S.
        • Deedwania P.C.
        • Zoble R.G.
        • Wexler L.F.
        • Kleiger R.E.
        • Pepine C.R.
        • Ferry D.R.
        • Chow B.K.
        • Lavori P.W.
        Outcomes in patients with acute non-Q-wave myocardial infarction randomly assigned to an invasive as compared with a conservative management strategy.
        N Eng J Med. 1998; 338: 1785-1792
        • Boden W.E.
        • Pearson T.A.
        Raising Low Levels of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Is an Important Target of Therapy.
        Am J Cardiol. 2000; 1: 85-89
        • Boden W.E.
        • Pearson T.A.
        Raising low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol is an important target of therapy.
        Am J Cardiol. 2000; 85: 645-650
        • Boden W.E.
        • van Gilst W.H.
        • Scheldewaert R.G.
        • Starkey I.R.
        • Carlier M.F.
        • Julian D.G.
        • Whitehead A.
        • Bertrand M.E.
        • Col J.J.
        • Pedersen O.L.
        • Lie K.I.
        • Santoni J.P.
        • Fox K.M.
        Diltiazem in acute myocardial infarction treated with thrombolytic agents: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.
        Lancet. 2000; 355: 1751-1756
        • Gibson R.S.
        • Hansen J.F.
        • Messerli F.
        • Schechtman K.B.
        • Boden W.E.
        Long-term effects of diltiazem and verapamil on mortality and cardiac events in non-Q-wave acute myocardial infarction without pulmonary congestion: post hoc subset analysis of the multicenter diltiazem post-infarction trial and the second Danish verapamil infarction trial studies.
        Am J Cardiol. 2000; 86: 275-279
        • Heggunje P.S.
        • Wade M.J.
        • O'Rourke R.A.
        • Kleiger R.E.
        • Deedwania P.C.
        • Lavori P.W.
        • Boden W.E.
        • VANQWISH trial investigators
        Early invasive versus ischemia-guided strategies in the management of non-Q wave myocardial infarction patients with and without prior myocardial infarction; results of Veterans Affairs Non-Q Wave Infarction Strategies in Hospital (VANQWISH) trial.
        Europ Heart J. 2000; 21: 2014-2025
        • Wexler L.F.
        • Blaustein A.S.
        • Lavori P.W.
        • Lehmann K.G.
        • Wade M.
        • Boden W.E.
        Non-Q-wave myocardial infarction following thrombolytic therapy: a comparison of outcomes in patients randomized to invasive or conservative post-infarct assessment strategies in the Veterans Affairs non-Q-wave Infarction Strategies In-Hospital (VANQWISH) Trial.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001; 37: 19-25
        • Boden W.E.
        • McKay R.G.
        Optimal treatment of acute coronary syndromes--an evolving strategy.
        N Eng J Med. 2001; 344: 1939-1942
        • McKay R.G.
        • Boden W.E.
        Small peptide GP IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitors as upstream therapy in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes: results of the PURSUIT,PRISM, PRISM-PLUS, TACTICS, and PARAGON trials.
        Curr Op Cardiol. 2001; 16: 364-369
        • Barnett P.G.
        • Chen S.
        • Boden W.E.
        • Chow B.
        • Every N.R.
        • Lavori P.W.
        • Hlatky
        Cost-effectiveness of a conservative, ischemia-guided management strategy after non-Q-wave myocardial infarction: results of a randomized trial.
        Circulation. 2002; 105: 680-684
        • Kerensky R.A.
        • Wade M.
        • Deedwania P.
        • Boden W.E.
        • Pepine C.J.
        Revisiting the culprit lesion in non-Q-wave myocardial infarction.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002; 39: 1456-1463
        • Goyal A.
        • Samaha F.F.
        • Boden W.E.
        • Wade M.J.
        • Kimmel S.E.
        Stress test criteria used in the conservative arm of the FRISC-II trial under-detects surgical coronary artery disease when applied to patients in the VANQWISH trial.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002; 39: 1601-1607
        • Boden W.E.
        Is it time to reassess the optimal timing of coronary artery bypass graft surgery following acute myocardial infarction?.
        Am J Cardiol. 2002; 90: 35-38
        • Samaha F.F.
        • Kimmel S.E.
        • Kizer J.
        • Goyal A.
        • Wade M.J.
        • Boden W.E.
        Usefulness of the TIMI Risk Score in predicting both short and long-term outcomes in the Veterans Affairs Non-Q-Wave Infarction Strategies In-Hospital (VANQWISH) Trial.
        Am J Cardiol. 2002; 90: 922-926
        • Januzzi J.L.
        • Cannon C.P.
        • Theroux P.
        • Boden W.E.
        Optimizing glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist use for patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome.
        Am Heart J. 2002; 146: 764-774
        • Yarlagadda R.K.
        • Boden W.E.
        Cardioprotective effects of an early invasive strategy for non- ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes: are we all becoming ‘Interventional’ Cardiologists?.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002; 40: 1915-1918
        • Januzzi J.L.
        • Cannon C.P.
        • Theroux P.
        • Boden W.E.
        Optimizing glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist use for the non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes: risk stratification and therapeutic intervention.
        Am Heart J. 2003; 146 ([Review]): 764-774
        • Boden W.E.
        Surgery, angioplasty, or medical therapy for symptomatic multivessel coronary artery disease: is there an indisputable ”winning strategy” from evidence-based clinical trials?.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004; 43: 1752-1754
        • Elkoustaf R.A.
        • Boden W.E.
        Is there a gender paradox in the early invasive strategy for non ST- segment elevation acute coronary syndromes?.
        Eur Heart J. 2004; 18: 1559-1561
        • Mehta S.R.
        • Cannon C.P.
        • Fox K.A.
        • Wallentin L.
        • Boden W.E.
        • Spacek R.
        • Widimsky P.
        • McCullough P.A.
        • Hunt D.
        • Braunwald E.
        • Yusuf S.
        Routine vs selective invasive strategies in patients with acute coronary syndromes: a collaborative meta-analysis of randomized trials.
        J Am Med Assoc. 2005; 293: 2908-2917
        • Boden W.E.
        Acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation--what is the role of early intervention?.
        N Engl J Med. 2005; 353: 1159-1161
        • Bhatt D.L.
        • Fox K.A.A.
        • Hacke W.
        • Berger P.B.
        • Black H.R.
        • Boden W.E.
        • Cacoub P.
        • Cohen E.A.
        • Creager M.A.
        • Easton J.D.
        • Flather M.D.
        • Haffner S.M.
        • Hamm C.W.
        • Hankey G.J.
        • Johnston C.J.
        • Mak K.-H.
        • Mas J.-L.
        • Montalescot G.
        • Pearson T.A.
        • Steg P.G.
        • Steinhubl S.R.
        • Weber M.A.
        • Brennan D.M.
        • Fabry-Ribaudo L.
        • Booth J.
        • Topol E.J.
        Clopidogrel and aspirin versus aspirin alone for the prevention of atherothrombotic event.
        N Engl J Med. 2006; 354: 1706-1717
        • Boden W.E.
        • O'Rourke R.A.
        • Teo K.K.
        • Hartigan P.M.
        • Maron D.J.
        • Kostuk W.J.
        • Knudtson M.
        • Dada M.
        • Casperson P.
        • Harris C.L.
        • Chaitman B.R.
        • Shaw L.
        • Gosselin G.
        • Blaustein A.S.
        • Booth D.C.
        • Bates E.R.
        • Spertus J.A.
        • Berman D.S.
        • Mancini G.B.J.
        • Weintraub W.S.
        Design and rationale of the Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive DruG Evaluation (COURAGE) Trial.
        Am Heart J. 2006; 151: 1173-1179
        • Diercks D.B.
        • Roe M.T.
        • Mulgund J.
        • Pollack C.V.
        • Kirk J.D.
        • Gibler W.B.
        • Ohman E.M.
        • Smith S.C.
        • Boden W.E.
        • Peterson E.D.
        The obesity paradox in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes: Results from the CRUSADE Quality Improvement Initiative.
        Am Heart J. 2006; 152: 140-148
        • Favarato M.E.
        • Hueb W.
        • Boden W.E.
        • Lopes N.
        • Nogueira C.R.
        • Takiuti M.
        • Gois A.F.
        • Borges J.C.
        • Favarato D.
        • Aldrighi J.M.
        • Oliveira S.A.
        • Ramires J.A.
        Quality of life in patients with symptomatic multivessel coronary artery disease: a comparative post hoc analyses of medical, angioplasty or surgical strategies - MASS-II trial.
        Intl J Cardiol. 2007; 116: 364-370
        • Boden W.E.
        • O'Rourke R.A.
        • Teo K.K.
        • Hartigan P.M.
        • Maron D.J.
        • Kostuk W.J.
        • Knudtson M.
        • Dada M.
        • Casperson P.
        • Harris C.L.
        • Chaitman B.R.
        • Shaw L.
        • Gosselin G.
        • Blaustein A.S.
        • Booth D.C.
        • Bates E.R.
        • Spertus J.A.
        • Berman D.S.
        • Mancini G.B.J.
        • Weintraub W.S.
        The evolving pattern of symptomatic coronary heart disease in the United States and Canada: Baseline characteristics of the Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation (COURAGE) Trial.
        Am J Cardiol. 2007; 99: 208-212
        • Boden W.E.
        • O'Rourke R.A.
        • Teo K.K.
        • Hartigan P.M.
        • Maron D.J.
        • Kostuk W.J.
        • Knudtson M.
        • Dada M.
        • Casperson P.
        • Harris C.L.
        • Chaitman B.R.
        • Shaw L.
        • Gosselin G.
        • Nawaz S.
        • Title L.M.
        • Gau G.
        • Blaustein A.S.
        • Booth D.C.
        • Bates E.R.
        • Spertus J.A.
        • Berman D.S.
        • Mancini G.B.J.
        • Weintraub W.S.
        Optimal medical therapy with or without PCI in stable coronary disease.
        N Engl J Med. 2007; 356: 1503-1516
        • Bhatt D.L.
        • Flather M.D.
        • Hacke W.
        • Berger P.B.
        • Black H.R.
        • Boden W.E.
        • Cacoub P.
        • Cohen E.A.
        • Creager M.A.
        • Easton J.D.
        • Flather M.D.
        • Haffner S.M.
        • Hamm C.W.
        • Hankey G.J.
        • Johnston C.J.
        • Mak K.-H.
        • Mas J.-L.
        • Montalescot G.
        • Pearson T.A.
        • Steg P.G.
        • Steinhubl S.R.
        • Weber M.A.
        • Brennan D.M.
        • Fabry-Ribaudo L.
        • Booth J.
        • Topol E.J.
        Patients with prior myocardial infarction, stroke, or symptomatic peripheral arterial disease in the CHARISMA Trial.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007; 49: 1982-1988
        • Boden W.E.
        • Eagle K.
        • Granger C.B.
        Reperfusion strategies in acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: a comprehensive review of contemporary management options.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007; 50: 917-929
        • Shaw L.J.
        • Berman Ds.
        • Maron D.J.
        • Mancini G.B.J.
        • Hayes S.W.
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        • COURAGE investigators
        Optimal medical therapy with or without percutaneous coronary intervention to reduce ischemic burden. Results from the Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive DruG Evaluation (COURAGE) Trial Nuclear Substudy.
        Circulation. 2008; 117: 1283-1291
        • Boden W.E.
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        ST-elevation myocardial infarction: the role of adjunctive antiplatelet therapy.
        Am J Em Med. 2008; 26: 212-220
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        Revascularization for unprotected left main stem coronary artery stenosis stenting or surgery.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008; 51: 885-892
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        • Ohman E.M.
        Contemporary approach to the diagnosis and management of non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes.
        Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2008; 50: 311-351
        • Boden W.E.
        • Maron D.J.
        Reducing post-myocardial infarction mortality in the elderly: The power and promise of secondary prevention.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008; 51: 1255-1257
        • Boden W.E.
        • Diamond G.A.
        DTCA for PTCA–Crossing the line in consumer health education?.
        N Engl J Med. 2008; 358: 2197-2200
        • Alexander K.P.
        • Chen A.Y.
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        • Harrington R.A.
        • Peterson E.D.
        • CRUSADE Investigators
        Transfusion practice and outcomes in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes.
        Am Heart J. 2008; 155: 1047-1053
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        • Braunwald E.
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        • Windhausen F.
        • Sabatine M.S.
        Early invasive vs conservative treatment strategies in women and men with unstable angina/ non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: A meta-analysis.
        J Am Med Assoc. 2008; 300: 71-80
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        • Barnett P.G.
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        • Boden W.E.
        • Mancini G.B.
        • COURAGE Trial Research Group
        Effect of PCI on quality of life in patients with stable coronary disease.
        N Engl J Med. 2008; 359: 677-687
        • Mehta S.R.
        • Boden W.E.
        • Eikelboom J.W.
        • Flather M.
        • Steg P.G.
        • Avezum A.
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        • OASIS 5 and 6 Investigators
        Antithrombotic therapy with fondaparinux in relation to interventional management strategy in patients with ST- and non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes.
        Circulation. 2008; 118: 2038-2046
        • Weintraub W.S.
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        • Zhang Z.
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        • Hartigan P.
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        • Jurkowitz C.
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        • Goeree R.
        • Barnett P.G.
        Cost-effectiveness of percutaneous coronary intervention in optimally treated stable coronary patients.
        Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2008; 1: 12-20
        • Boden W.E.
        • O'Rourke R.A.
        • Teo K.K.
        • Maron D.J.
        • Hartigan P.M.
        • Sedlis S.P.
        • Dada M.
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        • Weintraub W.S.
        Impact of optimal medical therapy with or without percutaneous coronary intervention on long-term cardiovascular endpoints in patients with stable coronary artery disease from the COURAGE Trial.
        Am J Cardiol. 2009; 104: 1-4
        • Mancini G.B.J.
        • Bates E.R.
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        Quantitative results of baseline angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention in the COURAGE Trial.
        Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2009; 2: 320-327
        • Maron D.J.
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        • Teo K.K.
        • Weintraub W.S.
        • Boden W.E.
        Impact of an initial strategy of medical therapy without percutaneous coronary intervention is high-risk patients from the COURAGE Trial.
        Am J Cardiol. 2009; 104: 1055-1062
        • Teo K.K.
        • Sedlis S.P.
        • Boden W.E.
        • O'Rourke R.A.
        • Maron D.J.
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        • Dada M.
        • Gupta V.
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        Optimal medical therapy with or without percutaneous coronary intervention in older patients with stable coronary disease; a pre-specified subset analysis of the COURAGE Trial.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009; 54: 1303-1308
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        • TIMACS investicators
        Early versus delayed invasive intervention in acute coronary syndromes.
        N Engl J Med. 2009; 360: 2165-2175
        • Boden W.E.
        • Taggart D.P.
        Diabetes with coronary disease – a moving target amid evolving therapies?.
        N Engl J Med. 2009; 360: 2570-2572
        • Jolly S.S.
        • Faxon D.P.
        • Fox K.A.A.
        • Afzal R.
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        • Steg P.G.
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        • Granger C.B.
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        Efficacy and safety of Fondaparinux versus enoxaparin in patients with acute coronary syndromes treated with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors or thienopyridines.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009; 54: 468-476
        • Maron D.J.
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        • Teo K.K.
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        • Weintraub W.S.
        • Boden W.E.
        • COURAGE Trial Research Group
        Impact of an initial strategy of medical therapy without percutaneous coronary intervention in high-risk patients from the clinical outcomes utilizing revascularization and aggressive drug evaluation (COURAGE) Trial.
        Am J Cardiol. 2009; 104: 1055-1062
        • Chaitman B.R.
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        • Booth D.C.
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        • Boden W.E.
        Do major cardiovascular outcomes in patients with stable ischemic heart disease in COURAGE differ by healthcare system?.
        Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2010; 3: 476-483
        • Cannon C.P.
        • Rhee K.
        • Califf R.
        • Boden W.E.
        • Hirsch A.
        • Alberts M.
        • Cable G.
        • Shao M.
        • Ohman E.M.
        • Steg P.G.
        • Eagle K.
        • Bhatt D.
        • REACH Registry Investigators
        Current use of aspirin and antithrombotic agents in the United States among outpatients with atherothrombotic disease (from the Reduction of Atherothrombosis for Continued Health (REACH Registry).
        Am J Cardiol. 2010; 105: 445-452
        • Maron D.J.
        • Boden W.E.
        • O'Rourke R.A.
        • Hartigan P.M.
        • Calfas K.J.
        • Mancini J.B.J.
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        • Dada M.
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        • Teo K.K.
        • COURAGE Trial research group
        Intensive multifactorial intervention for stable coronary artery disease.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010; 55: 1348-1358
        • Williams D.O.
        • Vasaiwalda S.C.
        • Boden W.E.
        Is optimal medical therapy “optimal therapy” for multivessel coronary artery disease?.
        Circulation. 2010; 122: 943-945
        • Zhang Z.
        • Kolm P.
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        • Hartigan P.M.
        • Maron D.J.
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        • Sedlis S.P.
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        The cost effectiveness of PCI as a function of angina severity in patients with stable angina.
        Circ Cardiovasc Outcomes. 2011; 4: 172-182
        • AIM-HIGH Investigators
        The role of niacin in raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol to reduce cardiovascular events in patients with atherosclerosis cardiovascular disease and optimally treated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol rationale and study design.
        Am Heart J. 2011; 161: 471-477
        • Maron D.J.
        • Boden W.E.
        • Spertus J.A.
        • Hartigan P.M.
        • Mancini G.B.J.
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        • Dada M.
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        • Weintraub W.S.
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        Impact of Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes on Prognosis and Outcomes with Early Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in the Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive DruG Evaluation (COURAGE) Trial.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011; 58: 131-137
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        • Teo K.K.
        • Dada M.
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        • Boden W.E.
        Angiographic changes and residual risk of cardiovascular events while on optimal medical therapy: observations from the COURAGE trial.
        Circ Cardiovasc Interv. 2011; 4: 545-552
        • Maron D.J.
        • Stone G.W.
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        • Byrne D.W.
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        • Spertus J.A.
        Is cardiac catheterization necessary prior to initial management of patients with stable ischemic heart disease?.
        Am Heart J. 2011; 162: 1034-1043
        • Shaw L.J.
        • Mieres J.H.
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        • Boden W.E.
        • Hachamovitch R.
        • Arrighi J.A.
        • Merz C.N.
        • Gibbons R.J.
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        • Heller G.V.
        Comparative Effectiveness of Exercise Electrocardiography With or Without Myocardial Perfusion SPECT in Women with Suspected Coronary Artery Disease: Results from the What's the Optimal Method for Ischemia Evaluation in Women (WOMEN) Trial.
        Circulation. 2011; 124: 1239-1249
        • Boden W.E.
        Is myocardial perfusion imaging an important predictor of mortality in women with suspected ischemic heart disease in developing countries - and, if so, is this likely cost-effective?.
        JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2011; 4: 889-893
        • Boden W.E.
        • Probstfield J.L.
        • McBride R.
        • AIM-HIGH Trial investigators
        Niacin in patients with low HDL cholesterol levels receiving intensive statin therapy.
        N Engl J Med. 2011; 365: 2255-2267
        • Boden W.E.
        Mounting evidence for lack of PCI benefit in stable ischemic heart disease: What more will it take to turn the tide of treatment.
        Arch Intern Med. 2012; 172: 319-321
        • Gosselin G.
        • Teo K.K.
        • Tanguay J.-F.
        • Gokhale R.
        • Hartigan P.M.
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        • Bates E.R.
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        • Spertus J.A.
        • Kostuk W.J.
        • Dada M.
        • Sedlis S.P.
        • Berman D.S.
        • Shaw L.J.
        • O'Rourke R.A.
        • Weintraub W.S.
        • Boden W.E.
        Effectiveness of percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with silent myocardial ischemia (Post hoc analysis of the COURAGE trial).
        Am J Cardiol. 2012; (in press, April 1, 2012)
        • Boden W.E.
        Weighing the evidence for PCI decision-making in patients with stable CAD.
        Circulation. 2012; (in press, April 17, 2012)
      1. O'Donoghue ML, Vaidya A, Afsal R, Alfredsson J, Boden WE, Braunwald E, Cannon CP,Clayton TC, de Winter RJ, Fox KAA, Lagerqvist, McCullough PA, Murphy SA, Spacek R, Swahn E, Winshausen F, Sabatine MS. An invasive or conservative strategy in patients with diabetes mellitus and non-ST-segment elevation acute coonary syndromes: A collaborative meta-analysis of randomized trials. (in press, J Am Coll Cardiol, June, 2012).